AuthorShubat, Pamela Jane
Pulmonary artery -- Effect of drugs on.
Heart -- Effect of chemicals on.
AdvisorHuxtable, Ryan J.
MetadataShow full item record
PublisherThe University of Arizona.
RightsCopyright © is held by the author. Digital access to this material is made possible by the University Libraries, University of Arizona. Further transmission, reproduction or presentation (such as public display or performance) of protected items is prohibited except with permission of the author.
AbstractMonocrotaline is a pyrrolizidine alkaloid found in plants implicated in livestock and human poisoning. Laboratory rats given monocrotaline develop pulmonary hypertension and right heart hypertrophy in the weeks following administration of the chemical. Lung weight increases and right heart hypertrophy correlate with increased pulmonary artery pressure. Rats which consumed monocrotaline drinking water (20 mg/l) for only 4 days developed significant increases in lung and heart weights 14 days after exposure began. This exposure was equivalent to a dose of 15 mg/kg. Other treatment combinations of time (0-10 days exposure) and monocrotaline concentration (5-60 mg/l in drinking water) were tested. The accumulative dose calculated for each of the treatment combinations which produced toxicity was in the range of 15 to 20 mg/kg. Monocrotaline injury appears to be cumulative, but organ weight increases reverse once exposure is stopped. As pulmonary hypertension develops and pulmonary arteries hypertrophy, the force with which isolated pulmonary artery segments contract decreases. This is a loss of efficacy rather than potency to the contracting agents KCl, norepinephrine, and 5-hydroxytryptamine. Relaxation of arteries under conditions of potassium-return (a measure of Na⁺/K⁺ ATPase activity) was also altered by monocrotaline treatment. In vivo monocrotaline treatment had little effect on the force of K⁺-return relaxation. However, the rate at which arteries relaxed was significantly decreased following 4 days ingestion of monocrotaline drinking water (20 mg/l). In vitro ouabain treatment and endothelial injury also decreased the rate of K⁺-return relaxation. Another Na⁺/K⁺ ATPase activity, ⁸⁶Rb⁺ uptake, was decreased following monocrotaline treatment only when 5-hydroxytryptamine was present and only uptake associated with the endothelium was affected. These studies utilized a very low exposure to monocrotaline (4 days ingestion of 20 mg/l monocrotaline drinking water or 15 mg/kg) to produce toxicity in rats. Monocrotaline-induced toxicity measured 20 days after treatment included right heart and lung hypertrophy and decreased contractions of isolated pulmonary arteries. Monocrotaline treatment decreased the rate of Na⁺/K⁺ ATPase-dependent relaxation of isolated pulmonary arteries 4 days after treatment began.
Degree ProgramPharmacology & Toxicology