Development of long-term memory retention processes among learning disabled and nondisabled children.
AuthorBrown, Kim Freidah.
AdvisorObrzut, John E.
MetadataShow full item record
PublisherThe University of Arizona.
RightsCopyright © is held by the author. Digital access to this material is made possible by the University Libraries, University of Arizona. Further transmission, reproduction or presentation (such as public display or performance) of protected items is prohibited except with permission of the author.
AbstractThis study investigated the development of acquisition and long term retention processes in Learning Disabled (LD) and Non-Learning Disabled children aged 7-12. One hundred six subjects were randomly assigned to memorize either a list of unrelated words (with free recall), or a list of taxonomically related words (with recall cued by category). Each subject had a 16 word list presented in visual and auditory modes. The repeated recall paradigm alternated study and test trials, with a buffer activity between trials. The acquisition phase ended when the subject reached 100% criterion. After an interval of two weeks, each subject was given 5 additional recall tests. Acquisition results indicated significant main effects for age, group (LD, Non-LD) and list type (unrelated, categorized) on measures of trial-of-last-error and total-errors. Overall, the groups which acquired the lists most quickly were the older and Non-LD subjects, with the categorized list. There was a List x Group interaction on the trial-of-last-error. With the categorized list, only age was significant, and conversely, with the unrelated list, only group was significant. On the retention measures, there were main effects for list and group, with a List x Group interaction. The only significant age effect was with total-words on the categorized list. Over the five trials (repeated measures), there was a significant effect for trials. A consistent hypermnesia effect (increase in net recall) was predominant. Further model-based analyses (Brainerd, Kingma, Howe, & Reyna, 1988) revealed storage failure, rather than retrieval failure to be the major action in children's forgetting. Learning Disabled children had significantly more storage failure than the Non-LD children. Both groups had more storage failure on the unrelated lists. There was retrieval relearning with all groups. Results are discussed within the framework of the disintegration/redintegration theory, which pertains to the gradual weakening and redintegration of bonds that unite features to form a trace.
Degree ProgramEducational Foundations and Administration