Physiological and biochemical responses of short staple cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) to salt stress.
AdvisorKatterman, Frank R.
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PublisherThe University of Arizona.
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AbstractThree cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) germplasms (DP62, 84027, and 84033) were used to investigate the physiology of salt tolerance. Lines 84027 and 84033 were developed from the parental line DP62 and showed superior vigor under varying NaCl conditions (0.5 to 2.0 M) during germination and emergence. Proline levels increased in the leaves of all germplasms in response to increasing salinity. Varietal differences in proline levels did not reflect their variation in salt tolerance. Several physiological characteristics were also evaluated under non-saline condition in the greenhouse. There were no significant differences among germplasm sources for all parameters measured. However, salinity reduced transpiration rate, increased leaf diffusive resistance and leaf temperature for all lines. Ribosomal-RNA levels in all germplasms were evaluated after seeds were stressed for 24 hrs in various concentrations of NaCl and then germinated under normal conditions for 72 hrs. Ribosomal-RNA levels were inversely related to salt concentrations. Line 84033 followed by line 84027 had highest ribosomal-RNA content than the parental line DP62 when averaged over the four salt concentrations. Sodium content (ppm/g FW) and Cl⁻ content (ppm/g FW) were evaluated in microsomal and cell walls fractions as well as a cytoplasmic fraction which consisted of vacuoles, mitochondria, and plastids. The Cl⁻ ion exhibited a greater consistency in a concentration shift from one fraction to another as a function of time than did the Na⁺ ion. As a result, there may be a correlation between the drop in ribosomal-RNA and the amount of Cl⁻ in the microsomal fraction. Other parameters measured in the germinating seed were soluble protein (globulin), insoluble proteins (prolamin and glutelin) and fiber percentage. Variations within the germplasms were shown to exist. This study shows that even among lines that have been selected for salt tolerance from a single variety, the possibility exists that each of these lines may have a different mechanism to cope with salt stress.
Degree ProgramPlant Sciences