Chemical reactions at the interfaces of semiconductors and catalysts with solutions: I. Tin-palladium catalysts in electroless copper plating. II. Dissolution of crystalline gallium-arsenide in solutions containing complexing agents.
AuthorPierson, Bruce Gregory.
MetadataShow full item record
PublisherThe University of Arizona.
RightsCopyright © is held by the author. Digital access to this material is made possible by the University Libraries, University of Arizona. Further transmission, reproduction or presentation (such as public display or performance) of protected items is prohibited except with permission of the author.
AbstractThe concentration of tin and palladium in catalysts used in electroless copper plating have been determined by Rutherford backscattering spectrometry with high energy (2-5) MeV ⁴He⁺. The tin:palladium ratio in the catalyst decreases when exposed to an alkaline solution. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy has confirmed this result and has shown the palladium in the catalyst is present as palladium metal and the tin is present, probably as an oxidized species, to a depth of about 30 Å. Catalysts for the electroless plating of copper are obtained by the reaction of Pd(II) and Sn(II). The extent of the reaction and the concentrations of the reaction products depend on the solution conditions. Conflicting results obtained in previous investigations of tin-palladium catalysts can be explained on this basis. Single crystals of gallium arsenide (GaAs(100)) were found to dissolve in synthetic lung fluid (Gamble solution). The concentrations of arsenic and gallium in the Gamble solution as well as the arsenic:gallium ratio on the GaAs surface increased continuously as the time of exposure to the Gamble solution increased. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopic studies of the gallium arsenide surface showed that arsenic migrated to the surface and it was oxidized to a species resembling As₂O₃ and finally solubilized by the Gamble solution. The solubility of gallium was governed primarily by the formation of stable complexes with the citrate and phosphate ions in the Gamble solution. Zinc that was present in the single crystals of gallium arsenide also migrated to the surface.