Two different molecular pathways of immunomodulation by retinoids and carotenoids.
AuthorPrabhala, Rao H.
AdvisorWatson, Ronald R.
MetadataShow full item record
PublisherThe University of Arizona.
RightsCopyright © is held by the author. Digital access to this material is made possible by the University Libraries, University of Arizona. Further transmission, reproduction or presentation (such as public display or performance) of protected items is prohibited except with permission of the author.
AbstractEpidemiological studies suggest that both retinoid and carotenoid intakes are inversely correlated with the incidence of human cancers. Animal studies show that both retinoids and carotenoids inhibit tumor cell growth. Both retinoids and carotenoids activate the cytotoxicity function of macrophages in animal experiments. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the molecular mechanism for 13-cis retinoic acid (13-cRA) and beta-carotene (BC) induced immunomodulation which could explain their anti-cancer affects. The effects of 13-cRA and BC were studied on various subpopulations of T-lymphocytes both in vitro and in vivo. For in vitro studies, peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) were incubated with test compounds at clinically achievable concentrations (10⁻⁸M) for three days. Then the cells were stained with monoclonal antibodies followed by the analysis of flow cytometer. For in vivo studies, PBMC were collected from Barrett's esophagus or oral leukoplakia patients during treatment with 13-cRA (1mg/kg/day) or BC (30 mg/day), respectively. Then the cells were analyzed with monoclonal antibodies and flow cytometry. Both compounds showed the capability of stimulating different subpopulations of T-lymphocytes. 13-cRA predominantly increased the number of T-helper cells, their interleukin 2 (IL-2) receptors and their response to mitogens. Whereas, BC elevated the number of Natural Kill (NK) cells, their IL-2 receptors and their cytotoxicity against K562 target cells. Though these immunomodulatory effects appeared to be unaffected by the presence and cytotoxic functions of macrophages, cytokines seemed to have an important role in the retinoid- and carotenoid-induced immunomodulation. Plasma levels of IL-2 and tumor necrosis factor (TNF) measured by ELISA procedures were increased in patients treated for two months with 13-cRA and BC respectively. Anti-IL-2 and anti-TNF antibodies blocked the retinoic- and carotenoid-induced immunomodulation in in vitro studies. These results indicate that 13-cRA, activating T-helper cells with IL-2 production, and BC, activating NK cells with TNF release, induced immunostimulation which might be able to provide the anti-cancer affects in part seen in epidemiological studies.
Degree ProgramMicrobiology and Immunology