Electronic structure and bond energy trends in silicon-hydrogen and germanium-hydrogen bond activation by transition metals.
AuthorRai Chaudhuri, Anjana.
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PublisherThe University of Arizona.
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AbstractThe electronic structure factors that control Si-H and Ge-H bond activation by transition metals are investigated by means of photoelectron spectroscopy. Molecular orbital calculations are also used to gain additional insight into the orbital interactions involved in bond activation. The complexes studied have the general molecular formula (η⁵-C₅R'₅)Mn(CO)(L)HER₃, where R' is H or CH₃, L is CO or PMe₃, E is Si or Ge and R is Ph or Cl. These compounds are interesting models for catalysts in industrial processes like hydrosilation. The compounds display different stages of interaction and "activation" of the E-H bonds with the metal. One purpose is to measure the degree of Mn, Si, H 3-center-2-electron bonding in these complexes. The three-center interaction can be tuned by changing the substituents on Si, methylating the cyclopentadienyl ring, changing the ligand environment around the metal and substituting Si with Ge. The degree of activation is measured by observing the shifts in the metal and ligand ionizations relative to starting materials and free ligand in the photoelectron spectrum. Changing the substituent on Si extensively changes the degree of activation. Photoelectron spectral studies on (η⁵-C₅H₅)Mn(CO)₂HSiPh₃ show this to be a Mn(I) system. Progressive methylation of the cyclopentadienyl ring increases the electron richness at the metal center with no substantial effect on the degree of activation. Substitution on the metal (PMe₃ for CO) is less able to control the electronic structure factors of activation than the substitution on the Si atom. The magnitude of Ge-H bond activation is found to be of the same order as the Si-H bond activation for analogous compounds as found by studying (η⁵-C₅H₅)Mn(CO)₂HGePh₃, (η⁵-CH₃C₅H₄)Mn(CO)₂HGePh₃ and (η⁵- C₅(CH₃)₅)Mn(CO)₂HGePh₃ complexes by photoelectron spectroscopy. The photoelectron spectra of CpFe(CO)₂SiCl₃ and CpFe(CO)₂SiMe₃ were measured to study the electron charge shift from the metal to the ligand in these complexes as compared to CpMn(CO)₂HSiR₃ complexes. The photoelectron spectroscopic studies include numerous perturbations of the ligand and metal center to observe the extent of bond interaction and remain one of the best techniques to detect activation products.