VOLTAMMETRIC, ELECTROCHROMIC, AND SURFACE CHARACTERIZATION OF N-HEPTYL VIOLOGEN ON CHEMICALLY MODIFIED TIN OXIDE AND INDIUM OXIDE METALLIZED PLASTIC ELECTRODE FILMS.
AuthorCIESLINSKI, ROBERT CHARLES.
Thin films, Multilayered.
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PublisherThe University of Arizona.
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AbstractVoltammetric and spectroelectrochemical results are presented for the one-electron reduction of n-heptyl viologen on clean and silane-modified tin oxide, and on ion-beam modified, indium-tin oxide metallized plastic optically transparent electrodes (ITO MPOTE) surfaces. The use of viologens (dialkyl and diaryl 4,4' bipyridium compounds) in redox chromic displays is well known with a number of papers and patents discussing their use. The ability to vary the coloration rates of the electrochromic reaction of these compounds can be strongly influenced by the state of the electrode surface. Potential-step experiments, where the electrode potential is controlled at low overpotentials, has shown that the viologen reduction occurs through a nucleation process. The work here indicates that an "instantaneous nucleation" model appears to be the favored pathway for the n-heptyl viologen reaction. Chronoabsorptometric analysis of the nucleation process is made possible by monitoring the strongly absorbing viologen cation radical. Chronoabsorptometric data can be used to calculate the nucleation site density on an electrode surface. On silane-modified and ion-beam modified electrode surfaces, a more preferred nucleation site is found for the deposition of the first monolayers of viologen. Through the attachment of a silane or the ion-beam modification of an ITO metallized plastic film (ITO MPOTE), a nonpolar layer is created adjacent to the electrode surface. Prior to electrochemical reduction the n-heptyl viologen dication is partioned and concentrated into this nonpolar layer. The effect is a preconcentration of the viologen next to the electrode surface resulting in a fixed number of nucleation sites and an enhancement of the nucleation rate.