Economic and governmental factors in political violence: A cross-national analysis and case study of El Salvador.
AuthorFerrell, Jack Russell.
KeywordsEl Salvador -- Politics and government.
Income distribution -- El Salvador.
El Salvador -- Economic conditions.
Violence -- El Salvador.
Committee ChairBorhek, J. T.
MetadataShow full item record
PublisherThe University of Arizona.
RightsCopyright © is held by the author. Digital access to this material is made possible by the University Libraries, University of Arizona. Further transmission, reproduction or presentation (such as public display or performance) of protected items is prohibited except with permission of the author.
AbstractThis study analyzes economic and governmental factors in political violence, using both a cross-national quantitative analysis and an historical case study of El Salvador. Since at least the time of Aristotle, political violence has been a concern of social philosophers and social scientists. While it has often been seen primarily as revolutionary, political violence can be reconceptualized to include violent acts for political purposes carried out by an established regime as well as by its opponents. Such a broadening of the concepts facilitates neutral measurements of political violence, such as by death rate per population from domestic political conflict. For convenience, useful theories of political violence may be broken down into two main types. The first type, which may be called inequality theory, postulates some type of inequality, generally economic inequality, as a major cause of political violence. The second type of theory, which may be referred to as collective action theory, generally emphasizes the influence of the political interaction of competing actors. Other theories stress factors such as land inequality and population density. The cross-national analysis of this study found that income inequality and government sanctions were two of the more robust independent variables contributing to political violence. Similarly, the historical case study of El Salvador, particularly a comparison of the outbreaks of political violence occurring in 1932 and in 1979-84, suggests an important role in political violence was played by both income inequality and government sanctions. The findings that both of these variables contribute significantly and simultaneously to political violence implies that inequality theory and collective action theory may be partly compatible with each other. Also, the relationship between income inequality and political violence was found to be much stronger than the relationship between land inequality and political violence. This finding suggests that attempts to prevent political violence solely by addressing land inequality, as in many government land reform programs, will likely fall as long as they do not address the more fundamental factor of income inequality.
Degree GrantorUniversity of Arizona
Showing items related by title, author, creator and subject.
A unique Brazilian composer: A study of the music of Gilberto Mendes through selected piano piecesZumbro, Nicholas Constantine; Bezerra, Marcio Antonio Salvador, 1968- (The University of Arizona., 1998)This study attempts to demonstrate the uniqueness of the work of Gilberto Mendes (b. 1922) in the panorama of twentieth-century Brazilian music, through an examination of selected piano pieces. Even though Mendes is mainly known through his choral works, pieces specifically meant for the piano appear throughout his career, allowing the tracing of his evolution as a composer as well as to detect common characteristics that define his style. The list of works chosen includes two Preludios (1945, 1949), four pieces from Pequeno Album para Criancas (1947-1951), Sonatina Mozartiana (1951), two Pecas para Piano (1957-1958), Musica para Pianono 1 (1962), Blirium C-9 (1965), Vento Noroeste (1982), Il neige ... de nouveau! (1985), Um Estudo? Eisler e Webern Caminham nos Mares do Sul ... (1989), and estudo extudo eis tudo pois (1997). Even though the time span of these works allowed for a fascinating development of Mendes' style towards maturity, the pieces chosen for this study share many common traits such as pervasive use of musical quotation, free manipulation of form, and use of intensive repetition. The freedom and flexibility utilized by the composer when combining these elements make him a unique figure among Brazilian contemporary composers.
Evaluation of Sustainable Agriculture Systems in Central MexicoZaimes, George; Fernandez-Reynoso, Demetrio Salvador; Guertin, D. Phillip; Lopes, Vicente L.; Hawkins, Richard H.; Zaimes, George; Wissler, Craig (The University of Arizona., 2008)In Mexico, corn (Zea mays L.) is the most important crop (59% of its agriculture land) and the primary source of sediment yield. This study looks for alternatives to maintain corn productivity by means of sustainable soil and water conservation practices at central Mexico. In order to understand broad tendencies between soil erosion and crop productivity in the region, the EPIC (Erosion Productivity Impact Calculator) model was applied in the Texcoco's district as follows:1) Calibrate the model using 352 experimental corn plots established between 1972 and 1992 in 36 rural communities.2) Validate the model on a spatial basis, using GIS tools, by means of historic corn yields.3) Identify the most vulnerable areas where corn productivity is being affected by soil erosion.4) Analyze the relationship between soil erosion and crop productivity, over a 100 years of simulation, comparing the Current Management (CM) and the Recommended Management (RM) by governmental institutions.5) Evaluate the most feasible soil and water conservation practices for the region.From the calibration process, it was concluded that the EPIC model, under a wide range of environmental conditions, simulates very good corn yield (r2 between 0.88 and 0.90), annual runoff (r2=0.98), and annual sediment production (r2=0.96).Base on the official environmental inputs available in the region, the EPIC model can assess only a moderately strong relationship (r2=0.58) between the official historical crop records and the simulated ones.Comparison between CM and RM shows that the average crop yield in the region can be increased by 32.6% if RM were followed. Under the CM, the loss of soil fertility in the district reduces corn productivity by 3% over a hundred years. At least 50.0% of the region's agricultural area needs soil conservation practices, mainly on areas with slopes over 5%. If it is decided to grow corn under conventional till in such areas it is recommended to construct bench terraces in order to maintain soil erosion below 20 t/ha/yr. Corn under no till, besides control erosion, can also increase grain productivity by at least 40% (0.6 t/ha) by combining contouring, mulching, and manures.