SPECKLE MEASUREMENTS WITH A CCD ARRAY: APPLICATIONS TO SPECKLE REDUCTION.
AuthorEICHEN, ELLIOT GENE.
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PublisherThe University of Arizona.
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AbstractSpeckle noise is an integral part of any laser projection display because it is the nature of laser (coherent) illumination to form interference patterns with high visibility. The granularity of the image due to the speckle formed on the viewer's retina degrades the image quality, thus stimulating the need for speckle reduction techniques applied to laser displays. An instrument to measure image plane speckle contrast was built based on a linear CCD detector array interfaced to an LSI-11 microcomputer. Speckle reduction techniques were then evaluated by comparing the contrast obtained with each method. The effect of the spatial frequency response (MTF) on the measured contrast was studied, along with the statistical significance of the measurement which is limited by the finite sample space of 1024 detector pixels per CCD frame. The lowering of the contrast due to the array MTF can be minimized by working at extremely high F numbers (> 100). The sample space can be widened by taking more than one frame of data and treating all the frames as a single data set. Techniques to reduce speckle noise in laser displays fall into two broad categories: reducing the coherence of light forming the speckle, and incoherently adding multiple uncorrelated (or partially correlated) speckle patterns. The first technique (effective only for monochromatic displays) was implemented by coating a screen with various dyes, phosphors, or fluorescent paints. Using the 514 nm line from an Argon laser, the contrast can be reduced by almost 30% by spraying a thin layer of fluorescent paint on the screen. More speckle reduction can be achieved with an accompanying loss in image brightness. The second technique involved creating a multiplicity of partially correlated speckle patterns that appear from the same position on the screen over the integration period of the eye. The different speckle patterns are produced by changing the angle of illumination while keeping a portion of the laser spot focused on the same point on the screen. The scan angle method (applicable to multi-color displays), can be implemented by properly synchronizing an acousto-optic modulator with the scan optics, and imaging the modulator on the screen. Using a beaded screen and a reasonable laser dither of 10 millirads, the contrast can be reduced by half.
Degree ProgramOptical Sciences