Coded-aperture transaxial tomography using modular gamma cameras.
AuthorRoney, Timothy Joseph.
AdvisorHill, Frederick J.
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PublisherThe University of Arizona.
RightsCopyright © is held by the author. Digital access to this material is made possible by the University Libraries, University of Arizona. Further transmission, reproduction or presentation (such as public display or performance) of protected items is prohibited except with permission of the author.
AbstractImaging in nuclear medicine involves the injection of a radioactive tracer into the body and subsequent detection of the radiation emanating from an organ of interest. Single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) is the branch of nuclear medicine that yields three-dimensional maps of the distribution of a tracer, most commonly as a series of two-dimensional slices. One major drawback to transaxial tomographic imaging in SPECT today is the rotation required of a gamma camera to collect the tomographic data set. Transaxial SPECT usually involves a large, single-crystal scintillation camera and an aperture (collimator) that together only satisfy a small portion of the spatial sampling requirements simultaneously. It would be very desirable to have a stationary data-collection apparatus that allows all spatial sampling in the data set to occur simultaneously. Aperture or detector motion (or both) is merely an inconvenience in most imaging situations where the patient is stationary. However, aperture or detector motion (or both) enormously complicate the prospect of tomograhically recording dynamic events, such as the beating heart, with radioactive pharmaceuticals. By substituting a set of small modular detectors for the large single-crystal detector, we can arrange the usable detector area in such a way as to collect all spatial samples simultaneously. The modular detectors allow for the possibility of using other types of stationary apertures. We demonstrate the capabilities of one such aperture, the pinhole array. The pinhole array is one of many kinds of collimators known as coded apertures. Coded apertures differ from conventional apertures in nuclear medicine in that they allow for overlapping projections of the object on the detector. Although overlapping projections is not a requirement when using pinhole arrays, there are potential benefits in terms of collection efficiency. There are also potential drawbacks in terms of the position uncertainty of emissions in the reconstruction object. The long-term goal of the research presented is dynamic SPECT imaging of the heart. The basic concepts and tasks involved in transaxial SPECT imaging with pinhole arrays are presented along with arguments for the combination of modular gamma cameras and pinhole arrays. We demonstrate by emulation two methods of tomographically imaging a stationary single object slice and present results for these two systems on object space grids of 10cm x 10cm and 20cm x 20cm.
Degree ProgramElectrical and Computer Engineering