Embodied consumption of U.S. copper and sulfur: Implications for intensity of use estimation and forecasting.
AuthorAl-Rawahy, Khalid Hilal.
KeywordsSulfur industry -- United States
Sulfur -- Economic aspects -- United States
Sulfur industry -- United States -- Forecasting
Sulfur -- Economic aspects -- United States -- Forecasting.
MetadataShow full item record
PublisherThe University of Arizona.
RightsCopyright © is held by the author. Digital access to this material is made possible by the University Libraries, University of Arizona. Further transmission, reproduction or presentation (such as public display or performance) of protected items is prohibited except with permission of the author.
AbstractDomestic mineral consumption is defined as a net sum of apparent consumption plus embodied mineral contained in net imported goods. The U.S. is a net importer of copper-containing products, such as automobiles, electrical products, and construction and industrial machinery. Embodied copper which is contained in net imports of these products constitute part of domestic copper consumption. On the other hand, the U.S. is a net exporter of sulfur-using/embodying products, such as fertilizers and grains. The sulfur which is contained/employed in manufacturing exported products is not actually part of domestic sulfur consumption. Net embodied U.S. imports (exports) of copper (sulfur) are estimated. For copper, it is shown that domestic U.S. consumption is understated and increasing, intensity of use is constant rather than decreasing, and, in general, forecast increases in domestic consumption of copper are due mainly to embodied copper imports. For sulfur, it is shown that domestic consumption is overstated and declining; domestic intensity of use is also declining. The domestic copper and sulfur industries will be differentially impacted as a result of this increased reliance on overseas markets.
Degree ProgramMining and Geological Engineering
Degree GrantorUniversity of Arizona
Showing items related by title, author, creator and subject.
Stabilization of electron-deficient sulfur by neighboring sulfur and oxygen groups.Steffen, Lawrence Kraig. (The University of Arizona., 1989)The mesocyclic trithioether 1,4,7-trithiacyclononane shows neighboring group participation upon oxidation as evidenced by the peak potential for oxidation in cyclic voltammetry, 0.9 V versus Ag/0.1 M AgNO₃, and by the formation of its monosulfoxide by controlled potential electrolysis in an overall two electron process. Pulse radiolysis of 1,4,7-trithiacyclononane leads to the formation of a two-center three-electron bond of moderate stability. Naptho [1,8-b,c]-1,5-dithiocin shows neighboring group participation upon electrochemical oxidation. A low peak potential is observed, 0.47 V versus Ag/0.1 M AgNO₃, in the cyclic voltammetry. Controlled potential electrolysis leads to formation of the monosulfoxide in a two electron process. The rigid methionine analog (±)-2-exo-amino-6-endo methylthiobicyclo [2.2.1] heptane-2-endo carboxylic acid exhibits neighboring group participation upon electrochemical oxidation. The degree of participation depends on the acid/base chemistry of the α-amino acid. The zwitterion shows the strongest neighboring group participation. Controlled potential electrolysis led to the formation of two diastereomeric sulfoxides in a two electron process. The diastereomer ratio was suggestive of participation by the carboxylate in the oxidation. The structures of the sulfoxides were confirmed by comparison with chemically prepared sulfoxides and sulfoxide amino acid derivatives. The stereochemistry was assigned by comparison with related compounds upon which x-ray crystallographic analysis had been performed. Single-electron pulse radiolytic oxidation of the amino acid led to the formation of an absorbing transient which was assigned to a two-center three-electron sulfur-carboxylate oxygen species. The yield of the species formed was pH dependent. At a pH above 3.5 decarboxylation becomes a major decomposition pathway in contrast to the electrochemical experiments where no decarboxylation was seen. The alcohol (±)-endo-2-hydroxy-6-endo-methylthiobicyclo [2.2.1] heptane shows significant neighboring group participation upon electrochemical oxidation in comparison with its exo-hydroxy isomer as indicated by a 350 mV difference in the peak potentials. Controlled potential electrolysis in a two electron process leads to formation of a mixture of diastereomeric alkoxysulfonium salts.
THE INTERNATIONAL SULFUR MARKET: REGIONAL SUPPLY/DEMAND BALANCES, PROJECTIONS, AND IMPACTS ON THE INTERNATIONAL MARKET FOR SULFUR.OKECH, BENJAMIN AGGREY. (The University of Arizona., 1982)The sulfur supply situation in the international market is expected to change considerably in the future. Previously, sulfur supply came from mineral deposits and depended on the availability of reserves and conditions in the industry. These mineable deposits have deteriorated as production costs increased, as result of exploiting lower-quality reserves, increases in energy consumption, and environment costs. In addition, less expensive, non-discretionary, abatement sulfur has emerged as a result of the enforcement of public environmental regulations, product market specifications, and transportation technologies which require the removal of sulfur from sulfur-bearing products. These developments are seen as molding the conditions in the international sulfur market of the future. The market is expected to be characterized by: (1) a potential for an abundant supply of low-cost market-insensitive sulfur; (2) the declining role of those resources which have been supplying relatively high-cost discretionary sulfur; and (3) a broader supply base in terms of both source type and geographical distribution. This study provides a future perspective of the non-communist international sulfur market in view of the emerging non-discretionary sulfur sources and the declining role of conventional sulfur sources. The international sulfur market is divided into ten regional markets, defined primarily by geographic location, production and consumption concentration. Supply is divided into: non-discretionary and discretionary sulfur. Supply and demand are projected primarily econometrically, and surplus or deficit regions are identified. Two types of projection methods are used: regression based and non-regression based. The choice of the method used for a region is based on: (1) the availability of historical data, and (2) how closely the past and future economics of a region are expected to be related. The conclusions of this study are: (1) on world basis, sulfur is expected to be in continued excess; (2) virtually all sulfur is expected to come from non-discretionary sources; (3) some regions are expected to have a supply deficit, most will have supply surpluses; (4) the co-existence of deficit and surplus regions will result in inter-regional or international trade. However, the resulting trade pattern will be quite different from the present pattern; (5) the basis for price determination and the relative levels are expected to change; and (6) discretionary sulfur will be permanently forced out of the market.