Thermalization theory in heavy ion collisions by nonequilibrium statistical mechanics.
AuthorAbu-Samreh, Mohammad Mahmud.
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PublisherThe University of Arizona.
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AbstractThis dissertation presents a semiclassical microscopic approach based on the Uehling-Uhlenbeck equation for studying the equilibration processes due to nucleon-nucleon collisions during the collision of two heavy ions in the low and intermediate energy domain (5-100 MeV/nucleon). The state formed in the early stages of a heavy-ion collision can be characterized by a highly excited non-equilibrium system of nucleons. Equilibration processes then take place resulting in a system for which a temperature can be defined at least locally. The single-nucleon distribution function for the nucleons during the early stage of the ion-ion collision is represented in momentum-space either by two Fermi-spheres separated by the relative momentum of the impacting ions or by a deformed Fermi-sphere. The equilibration (thermalization) of this initial distribution in momentum-space is studied by calculating the collision term as a function of time. The relaxation-times are investigated through a microscopic model that incorporates the UU collision term with the relaxation-time approximation. Relaxation-times for the equilibration are obtained as a function of density and temperature. The temperature dependence is strong at low temperatures and this is a consequence of the Fermi statistics. The mode dependence of the relaxation-times is also calculated by expanding the angular dependence of the distribution in spherical harmonics. The RTA is also tested against thermalization of the Fermi-sphere systems and is found to be reasonable. Transport coefficients for viscosity, thermal conductivity and diffusion are also calculated as well as their temperature and density dependencies. Their relation to relaxation-times are derived. The mean free path of nucleons in hot nuclear matter is also studied in the same frame of work. The numerical calculations of the collision term are an important part of this investigation. They involve five-dimensional integrations carried out using Gaussian and Simpson's numerical methods.