Optimal use of ethnobotanical resources by the Mountain Pima of Chihuahua, Mexico.
AuthorLaferriere, Joseph Edward.
KeywordsPima Indians -- Mexico -- Economic conditions
Ethnobotany -- Mexico -- Chihuahua (State)
Chihuahua (Mexico : State) -- Economic conditions
Sierra Madre (Mexico) -- Economic conditions.
AdvisorVan Asdall, Willard
MetadataShow full item record
PublisherThe University of Arizona.
RightsCopyright © is held by the author. Digital access to this material is made possible by the University Libraries, University of Arizona. Further transmission, reproduction or presentation (such as public display or performance) of protected items is prohibited except with permission of the author.
AbstractThe Mountain Pima of the Sierra Madre Occidental of Chihuahua, Mexico, utilize a variety of domesticated and nondomesticated resources. Part of their agricultural system consists of shifting, or swidden, cultivation on steep hillsides. Wild edible plants contribute significant amounts of vitamins and minerals to the diet on a seasonal basis. The drought of 1988 caused a decrease in the availability of many resources, but an increase in availability of roots of saraviqui (Prionosciadium townsendii). A dynamic, nonlinear optimization study of Mountain Pima diet included requirements for adequate amounts of energy, protein, calcium, and vitamins A and C. Oxalate content of several plant foods and seasonal variation in resource availability were incorporated into the study. Two methods were compared: time minimization and a nutrient indexing method minimizing the product of the absolute value of the natural logarithm of the ratio of recommended intake to actual intake rates. This method allowed simultaneous optimization of several different parameters. The nutrient indexing model matched the actual diet of the Mountain Pima somewhat better than the traditional energy minimization model. It predicted higher use of noncultivated plant species and of animal resources than the time minimization model. Analyses were conducted for years of adequate rainfall and for the drought year. A list of 612 plant species collected in the community of Nabogame is also included.
Degree ProgramEcology & Evolutionary Biology
Degree GrantorUniversity of Arizona
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Radial Growth Losses in Douglas-Fir and White Fir Caused by Western Spruce Budworm in Northern New Mexico: 1700-1983Swetnam, Thomas W.; Laboratory of Tree-Ring Research, University of Arizona (Laboratory of Tree-Ring Research, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 1985-10-31)Regional outbreaks of western spruce budworms (Choristoneura occidentalis Freeman) have recurred at least three times in northern New Mexico since the early 1920's when the U. S. Forest Service first began systematic forest-pest surveys and documentation (Lessard 1975, U. S. Forest Service documents). The current outbreak was first noticed in a small area on the Taos Indian Reservation in 1974, and since then the defoliated areas have increased in New Mexico and Arizona to more than 370,000 acres of Federal, Indian, State and private lands (Linnane 1984). Losses in timber values can generally be ascribed to radial growth loss, height growth loss, topkilling, reduced regeneration, and mortality (Carlson et al. 1983, Fellin et al. 1983). A damage assessment project was initiated in 1978 and was aimed at obtaining measurements of some of these losses in budworm infested stands on the Carson National Forest, New Mexico (Holland and Lessard 1979). A large data base has subsequently been developed, including yearly measurements on topkilling, mortality, defoliation, and insect population changes (Stein 1980, 1981, Stein and McDonnell 1982, Rogers 1984). A growth assessment study was undertaken in 1982 to determine the feasibility of using dendrochronological methods to identify the timing of past outbreaks and to quantify radial growth losses associated with budworm defoliation (Swetnam 1984). Results of this work showed that three major outbreaks during the twentieth century were clearly visible in the tree-ring samples obtained from currently infested trees. The radial growth of host trees was corrected for age, climate and other non-budworm environmental effects, and then growth losses were computed as a percentage of expected growth (Swetnam 1984). Additional collections were obtained in 1984 in order to expand the scope of the radial growth study. The objectives included 1) assessment of a larger number of tree -ring samples, 2) comparison of radial growth losses between the two primary host species - Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii) and white fir (Abies concolor), 3) comparison of radial growth losses between age classes, and 4) analysis of the relationship between yearly measurements of defoliation, insect populations and radial growth. This report summarizes the findings of the above analyses. Increment core samples from the 1982 collections are included here, therefore this report supersedes the earlier report (Swetnam 1984). Information is also presented on observations derived from the dated tree-ring series on the timing of occurrence of known and inferred spruce budworm outbreaks for the past 284 years (1700- 1983). This is the longest record of spruce budworm occurrence yet developed for western North America.