THE USE OF IMAGERY AND BIOFEEDBACK IN THE TRAINING OF COUNSELORS AND THERAPISTS.
Counselors -- Training of.
Psychiatrists -- Training of.
AdvisorChristensen, Oscar C.
Committee ChairChristensen, Oscar C.
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PublisherThe University of Arizona.
RightsCopyright © is held by the author. Digital access to this material is made possible by the University Libraries, University of Arizona. Further transmission, reproduction or presentation (such as public display or performance) of protected items is prohibited except with permission of the author.
AbstractA problem in counselor education is the need to develop methods that would be more directly related to effective outcome in counseling. Researchers have concluded that success in counseling goals is related to clients' increased ability to monitor and modify their own behaviors and that counselor trainees whose education included an emphasis on learning self-regulation skills would be more effective in bringing about greater client self-regulation. Another need is for a theoretical formulation toward the development of more effective instructional methods. The concepts of holism and self-control, which were considered potentially useful within the theoretical system of Adler's Individual Psychology were combined with the methods of biofeedback, imagery, and self-control skills training in the synthesis of a prototypical instructional set. The purpose of the study was to experimentally evaluate this set and the potential validity and utility of the proposed conceptual framework. The hypothesis was that four graduate counselor students would demonstrate improvement in self-regulatory attitudes and behaviors after the treatment condition, which consisted of the instructional set. Electromyographic (EMG) physiological measurements, and scores on the Adult Nowicki-Strickland Internal-External locus-of-control scale were used to assess changes in the subjects' self-regulation, using the single-subject, multiple baseline across-subjects experiment design. Analysis of the results showed that subjects improved in control of muscle activity and in attitudinal direction of internal locus of control. The EMG physiological measurement was considered useful for this type of study, showing an adequate balance of sensitivity and stability. However, the locus-of-control measure was not considered adequate for this population because of an observed "floor" effect. The results were interpreted as having supported the hypothesis and were considered to have established the usefulness of the theoretical framework to generate research and the potential utility of the instructional method in counselor education. Suggestions are made for improvement for the use of EMG scores in the baseline phase and for minimal requirements for an adequate attitudinal scale for further research in this area.
Degree ProgramCounseling and Guidance