Age-related differences in human total body water relative to fat-free body mass.
AuthorHewitt, Michael John.
AdvisorLohman, Timothy G.
MetadataShow full item record
PublisherThe University of Arizona.
RightsCopyright © is held by the author. Digital access to this material is made possible by the University Libraries, University of Arizona. Further transmission, reproduction or presentation (such as public display or performance) of protected items is prohibited except with permission of the author.
AbstractThe objective of this investigation was to identify the appropriate isotopic fractionation factor for total body water (TBW) from ²H₂O enrichment in respiratory water vapor (RW) compared to serum (S), then to use the RW technique to estimate absolute TBW volumes and TBW relative to fat-free body mass (FFB) in three age groups (prepubescent, PP, age = 5-10 y; young adult, YA, age = 22-39 y; older adult, OA age = 65-84 y) of healthy white males and females. The effects of analytical technique (infrared spectrophotometry, IR versus isotope-ratio mass spectrometry, IRMS) and ambient relative humidity on estimates of TBW were also investigated. The composition of the FFB was estimated using a multi-component statistical model (body density, TBW and bone mineral density), and the errors associated with the traditional two-component formula for percent fat from body density were calculated. Our results demonstrated a significant (p < 0.0001) ²H₂O fractionation effect of 0.971 ± 0.005 (mean ± SEM, n = 36) for TBW from RW compared to S. Analysis by IR and IRMS were highly correlated (R² =.999) but IR values were significantly (p < 0.001) higher than IRMS. Deuterium enrichment in RW samples collected at ambient RH (∼20%) was significantly higher (Δ = 20.2 ± 4.5 ppm, mean ± SEM, p < 0.0005) than in RW samples collected at 100% RH, roughly equivalent to a 1.2 L (3.2%) difference in TBW. Total body water relative to FFB mass (W/FFB) was lower (p < 0.01) in YA males (71.0 ± 1.0%) and females (70.2 ± 1.3%) than in PP (boys = 73.1 ± 1.6%; girls = 72.2 ± 1.4%, mean ± SD). In OA, W/FFB was higher (p < 0.05) than in YA (OAM = 72.6 ± 1.1%; OAF = 72.2 ± 1.4%). The density of the FFB was 1.0996 and 1.0839 g/ml in OAM and OAF, respectively. Percent fat from density plus TBW and BMD was lower than from density alone in all groups but YA males, where it was 2.4 percent fat higher. In PP, the Siri density formula resulted in an overestimate of 5.8 ± 2.6 percent fat (mean ± SD, range = 1.4 to 13.6%). In OA females, the density formula overestimated percent fat by 4.4 ± 2.8% (range = 0 to 10.4%). In conclusion, RW corrected for isotopic fractionation will provide acceptable estimates of TBW, although the effects of analytical technique and RH should be controlled. The existence of age-related differences in FFB composition causes errors when the two-component model is used to estimate percent fat in PP and OA females.
Degree ProgramAnimal Physiology