EFFECTS OF SOIL SOLARIZATION AND ANTAGONISTIC BACTERIA ON MACROPHOMINA PHASEOLINA AND SCLEROTIUM ROLFSII (ARIZONA).
AuthorMIHAIL, JEANNE DENYSE.
KeywordsEuphorbia lathyris -- Diseases and pests -- Control -- Sonoran Desert.
Macrophomina phaseolina -- Control -- Sonoran Desert.
Sclerotium rolfsii -- Control -- Sonoran Desert.
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PublisherThe University of Arizona.
RightsCopyright © is held by the author. Digital access to this material is made possible by the University Libraries, University of Arizona. Further transmission, reproduction or presentation (such as public display or performance) of protected items is prohibited except with permission of the author.
AbstractAn evaluation was made of soil solarization to control Macrophomina phaseolina and Sclerotium rolfsii under the climatic conditions of the Sonoran Desert region of Arizona. Tarping of moist soil with clear polyethylene in the summer was most effective in raising soil temperatures, while tarping during the fall and spring were less efficient. In one summer trial, the maximum temperatures achieved were 7-8 C higher than control plots at 1, 15, and 30 cm depths. In none of the tests was the application of tarp effective in reducing M. phaseolina populations to non-detectable levels. After a six-week summer solarization treatment, S. rolfsii was controlled at the 15-cm but not the 30-cm depth. During a fall treatment control of S. rolfsii was achieved only at the 1-cm depth. After solarization, seeds of Euphorbia lathyris were planted in solarized and control plots. The incidence of M. phaseolina-associated mortality among seedlings planted in solarized plots was always the same as the control plot with the highest disease incidence. The utility of this technique may be limited by the heat tolerance of the target organisms. Studies of bacterial antagonists were initiated to determine their utility in enhancing pathogen control after the solarization treatment. Screening 43 bacterial isolates showed that seven of Pseudomonas fluorescens and one of Serratia marcescens exhibited some form of antagonism toward M. phaseolina, S. rolfsii and Verticillium dahliae in vitro. Antagonism was manifested as a complete inhibition of fungal development or reduced hyphal development coupled with suppression of sclerotial development. The action of the antagonists was found to be fungitoxic or fungistatic rather than fungicidal. None of the four P. fluorescens isolates tested were effective in preventing M. phaseolina infection of E. lathyris seedlings. The ability of these bacteria to prevent sclerotial formation while still permitting hyphal growth may be a useful technique for studying the two phases of the fungal life cycle separately.
Degree ProgramPlant Pathology