The role of intracellular pH and calcium in the regulation of cellular functions.
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PublisherThe University of Arizona.
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AbstractUpon cell stimulation with hormones and other mitogens, a variety of biochemical and physiological responses occur within the first few minutes, including turnover of inositol phospholipids, activation of a number of kinases, and changes in intracellular pH (pHⁱⁿ) and calcium ([Ca²⁺]ⁱⁿ). Changes in both pHⁱⁿ and [Ca²⁺](in) are prominent and play a major role in the signal transduction mechanism leading to the physiological response, i.e. secretion, neurotransmission, proliferation and differentiation. The intracellular pH changes that follow mitogenic activation are complex and may reflect several different H⁺ transporting mechanisms. There are at least three main systems involved in the regulation of pHⁱⁿ in eukaryotic cells: (a) the mitogen stimulated Na⁺/H⁺ exchange, which electroneutrally raises pHⁱⁿ and can be inhibited by amiloride and its derivatives; (b) a variety of HCO₃⁻-based mechanisms which can alkalinize or acidify the cytosol, and can be inhibited by stilbene disulfonate derivatives; (c) and a plasma membrane H⁺-ATPase, which represents the least understood mechanism of pHⁱⁿ regulation. Under non-pathological conditions, pHⁱⁿ regulation is generally achieved by Na⁺/H⁺ exchange and HCO₃⁻-based mechanisms. Missexpression of a H⁺-ATPase in the plasma membrane can lead to a chronically high pHⁱⁿ in some tumor cells and might contribute to carcinogenesis. Chapter I explains the dissertation format and the relationship of the manuscripts included in three appendices. This chapter also indicates my contribution to each of these manuscripts. Chapter II is a summary of the most important findings in these manuscripts. Appendix I deals with the role of Na⁺/H⁺ exchange and Cl⁻/HCO₃⁻ exchange in the regulation of pHⁱⁿ. Appendix II deals with the role of H⁺-ATPase in the maintenance of a chronically high pHⁱⁿ and its possible involvement in tumorigenesis. Appendix III describes a technique to simultaneously measure pHⁱⁿ and [Ca²⁺]ⁱⁿ by fIuorescence spectroscopy. This appendix also describes the application to study the role of pHⁱⁿ and Ca²⁺ in the regulation of cell growth and progesterone secretion.