Predictors, interventions, and outcomes: Risk reduction for hypertension in African-Americans.
AuthorCesarotti, Evelyn Osborn
Committee ChairBraden, Carrie Jo
MetadataShow full item record
PublisherThe University of Arizona.
RightsCopyright © is held by the author. Digital access to this material is made possible by the University Libraries, University of Arizona. Further transmission, reproduction or presentation (such as public display or performance) of protected items is prohibited except with permission of the author.
AbstractThe study was conducted in two phases. Phase I consisted of generating models of risk reduction behaviors in order to implement and test risk reduction interventions for Phase II. The purposes of Phase I were: (a) to identify among a group of African-Americans individual and group risk factors for hypertension, and to identify demographic and psychosocial variables most predictive of risk reduction behaviors for hypertension, (b) to design and test a model that combines important demographic and psychosocial determinants of risk reduction behaviors, and (c) to generate data based models of the predictors of each risk reduction behavior for hypertension in the group of African-Americans. The conceptual model for the study was developed by combining variables from the Health Belief Model--susceptibility, severity, and barriers with variables from social learning theory-health locus of control and self-efficacy. The focus of Phase I was to test the model to determine the interactions among the variables, because the assumptions of the underlying theories suggest multiplicative rather than linear relationships. One hundred forty-three subjects completed Phase I. The demographic variables age, gender, and education entered the model as direct effects and strong moderators. Education was a direct effect for stress reduction and moderated the effect of risk severity in diet fat. Age as a direct effect explained 19 percent of the variance in diet sodium intake and 21 percent of the variance in diet fat as a direct effect and moderating effect of risk severity. Twenty-seven percent of the variance in alcohol use was explained by age (B = -.24) difficulty (B =.26), and risk health value moderated by age (B = -.27). Sixty-three percent of the variance in smoking behaviors was explained by the direct effects of age (B = -.20), gender (B = -12) and difficulty (B =.25), and by the interaction of age and difficulty (B =.52). In Phase II, interventions were developed that used either motivational or educational skills strategies such as monetary incentives, screening, risk assessment, health education, dietary analysis, and self-monitoring. Twenty-eight subjects participated in the pilot test of Phase II. Participants were most interested in modifying their diet fat intake and increasing stress reduction. The findings that each risk reduction behavior was predicted by different variables and/or different interaction patterns of the same variables supports further study of each risk reduction behavior rather than looking at risk reduction behavior as a conglomerate or as a summed health-promotive behavior. The study also supported the underlying theoretical assumptions of the Health Belief Model, and Social Learning Theory that the relationships between the variables is multiplicative, as moderating effects were found, but no mediating effects were supported.