International and intranational negotiations in the United States and Japan: The impact of cultural collectivism on cognitions, behaviors and outcomes.
AuthorLituchy, Terri Robin.
Committee ChairTansik, David
MetadataShow full item record
PublisherThe University of Arizona.
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AbstractThis dissertation explores the determinants of integrative outcomes in intranational and international negotiations between Americans and Japanese. A laboratory study was conducted to test the effects of cultural collectivism on (1) empathic concern towards, and trust in the negotiating partner, (2) competitive, cooperative and maximizing joint profit behaviors and (3) the integrativeness of the outcomes between Japanese and Americans. Individuals from collectivist cultures, such as the Japanese, behave differently towards members of their ingroup than with members of outgroups. An ingroup is defined as a group whose norms and values shape the behavior of its members. Results of an experiment involving 98 Japanese and 92 American students found that two Japanese negotiating together reached more integrative outcomes than either two Americans or an American and Japanese negotiating together. Japanese individuals behave in such a way as to satisfy the needs and goals of the entire ingroup. When negotiating with Japanese partners, Japanese negotiators behaved cooperatively and reached integrative outcomes. With American partners, however, the Japanese behaved competitively and reached distributive outcomes. People in individualist cultures, such as Americans, are interested in satisfying their own needs and compete with others, (regardless of their negotiating partners), to get what they want. In this negotiation exercise, the Americans reached distributive outcomes. Two cognitions that have an effect on the integrativeness of the outcome were examined in this dissertation. They are trust in and empathy towards one's negotiating partner. Japanese negotiators tend to have trust in and empathy towards members of Japanese partners, but not American partners. American negotiators tend to have less trust in and empathy towards their negotiating partners. Practical implications and future research are discussed.
Degree ProgramManagement and Policy