The development of criteria for the selection of age-appropriate literature for the senescent voice.
AuthorBarrier, Julie Tacker.
Committee ChairKnott, Josef
MetadataShow full item record
PublisherThe University of Arizona.
RightsCopyright © is held by the author. Digital access to this material is made possible by the University Libraries, University of Arizona. Further transmission, reproduction or presentation (such as public display or performance) of protected items is prohibited except with permission of the author.
AbstractThe intent of this study is to attempt to create new scientific criteria for the evaluation of choral literature for senescent singers, The first criterion developed for selection of age-appropriate choral literature was a measurement for voice quality registration called phonetography. Phonetography is the registration of the dynamic range of a voice as a function of fundamental frequency. Manual phonetograms on twenty young adult singers and twenty senescent singers were developed to determine individual frequency-by-intensity relationships of the senescent voice. The graph that was created when all points of minimum and maximum sound pressure levels are connected, thus enclosing the subject's total phonation area, was the singer's phonetogram. Three choral adjudicators were present at the phonetogram testing to determine which pitch levels and dynamic ranges were acceptable for healthy choral singing in each subject. Gelfer acoustic-perceptual rating scales were completed by the choral adjudicators on each phonetogram test subject. Adjectives utilized most frequently by speech pathologists, singers, otolaryngologists, and untrained listeners were codified and confidence ratings were made by each of the four groups who were polled. Appropriate opposites for the selected descriptors were chosen. The Gelfer test results were consistent with phonetogram findings. Criteria for age-appropriate choral literature were proposed from phonetogram data and the Gelfer acoustic-perceptual analyses. The four pieces which were selected as age-appropriate were analyzed by tessiturometry as a final criteria of suitability for aging singers. The tessiturogram is a graphic analysis of the frequency of note occurrence within a composition. Lower tessituras and limited ranges were recommended for aging singers. Choral selections with long phrases, rapid melismatic passages, wide unprepared leaps, and sustained singing should be avoided. High, soft singing for older female singers is not suggested. Rhythmic, homophonic works are recommended for successful performance. Instrumental accompaniments are beneficial in reinforcing the older singers' intonation.