AuthorRAY, ROBERT WILLARD.
AdvisorChristiansen, Harley D.
MetadataShow full item record
PublisherThe University of Arizona.
RightsCopyright © is held by the author. Digital access to this material is made possible by the University Libraries, University of Arizona. Further transmission, reproduction or presentation (such as public display or performance) of protected items is prohibited except with permission of the author.
AbstractAre widows, in the time of bereavement, able to learn coping skills through a model for group interaction? Sixty-two widows from 4 United Methodist congregations were randomly assigned to experimental and comparison conditions at each location, with experimental and comparison groups being formed of 10, 5, 9, and 7 each. Fifty-five completed the program, 10, 5, 7, and 7 in experimental, 9, 4, 9, and 4 in comparison. They were studied to determine change brought about by 16 hours of treatment over 4 weeks, 2 hours offered twice weekly. Treatment had 3 foci: separation from the deceased, resolution of personal loss, and renewed social interest and relationship. Group exercises were offered to encourage interaction. A handbook for the 16 hour program is found in the Appendix. Change was measured by two questionnaires, the author's Personal Assessment Questionnaire designed to measure adjustment of widows, and the Institute for Personality and Ability Testing Depression Scale, Personal Assessment Inventory, a measure of depression. Both instruments were administered as pretests and post-tests. A mixed analysis of variance with hierarchical design using a three-factor approach was conducted. The P. A. I. failed to register significant change in level of depression. The Personal Assessment Questionnaire registered change at the .0088 probability level, indicating the overall significance of the group treatment approach. The second independent variable, the subgroups generated at different locations, was found to be of insignificant effect upon the treatment variable. Informal comments by group members and observers suggest that this program of treatment for widows was of value to participants and could be helpful in other groups within church or similar settings. The program developed by Ray, a United Methodist minister, is being employed in churches of the Pacific and Southwest Annual Conference of the United Methodist Church.
Degree ProgramCounseling and Guidance