I. Analysis of biological specimens by proton-induced x-ray emission spectroscopy (PIXE). II. Separation and purity of carbon₆₀ and carbon₇₀.
AuthorLowe, Timothy Paul.
Committee ChairFernando, Quintus
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PublisherThe University of Arizona.
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AbstractProton induced x-ray emission spectroscopy (PIXE) is a rapid and sensitive analytical technique for the non-destructive simultaneous determination of elemental concentrations above atomic number 11 (sodium) and is the only analytical technique that can determine 20-30 elements nondestructively in a single small sample (≈5 mg) with detection limits of 1- 5 ppm (dry weight). Part I of this dissertation outlines work done on the optimization of instrumental parameters and sample preparation for the analysis of biological tissue. Cultured rabbit renal slices were used as the biological system to demonstrate the use of PIXE analysis. The renal slices were exposed to HgCl₂, CdCl₂, K₂Cr₂0₇, or NaAsO₂ alone or in a mixture. The analysis of biological samples by PIXE provides information on inter-elemental interactions in tissue and body fluids. A computer program for spectrum processing and quantitation, which decomposes overlapped peaks, corrects for thick target matrix effects and calculates results without resorting to the use of standards, is explored. In part II of this dissertation, a convenient method of removing solvent from a benzene extract of graphitic soot containing fullerenes using sublimation, is outlined. Separation of macroscopic quantities of the fullerenes C₆₀ and C₇₀ has been accomplished using a combination of selective precipitation of C₆₀ and chromatography. C₆₀ is selectively crystallized by freezing and thawing a benzene solution of mixed fullerenes, then using the C₇₀ enriched supernatant as starting material in the chromatographic separation of C₆₀ and C₇₀. In the separation scheme, a bed of modified silica sorbent is charged with the fullerene mixture and the fullerenes are eluted using a hexanes/THF mobile phase. The methods of uv-Visible and infrared spectroscopy, as well as high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) are evaluated for their ability to determine the purity of a C₆₀ or C₇₀ sample.