TRACE ANALYSIS OF CERTAIN CATIONS AND ANIONS: SULFUR SPECIES IN SOLIDS AND COPPER(I) IN AQUEOUS SOLUTIONS.
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PublisherThe University of Arizona.
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AbstractA nitrogen-cooled and an argon-cooled hydrogen flame have been used for the determination of sulfur containing species in solids by molecular emission cavity analysis (MECA). The argon-cooled flame is much more sensitive for the determination of SO₄²⁻. In a solid mixture containing S₈, S²⁻, SO₃²⁻, and SO₄²⁻, the presence of one or more of these sulfur containing species can be determined with the argon-cooled flame. The nitrogen-cooled flame can be useful, for example, in the determination of a mixture of S₈ and SO₃²⁻ in a solid matrix. All these sulfur containing species can be quantitatively determined in the argon-cooled flame in the concentration range from about 10 ppm to 5000 ppm. The variation from 10 percent to 30 percent in the reproducibility of these measurements has been attributed to the non-homogeneity of the solid materials and the small sizes required. Sulfur dioxide has been used for the reduction of ammoniacal copper(II) solutions to solutions containing various copper(I) compounds. These copper(I) compounds can be reduced further to copper metal by varying the solution conditions. The mechanisms of the reactions involved must be understood before they can be successfully used for the large scale production of copper. Porth et al.'s method was followed for the synthesis of Cu(I) intermediates. Several compounds were isolated and their compositions determined. The changes in the relative concentrations of Cu(I) and Cu(II) are also important for unraveling the kinetics and mechanisms of these reactions. A simple spectrophotometric method using 2,9-dimethyl-1,10-phenanthroline was developed to monitor the Cu(I) concentration in solution. The sensitivity of the method is sufficient to determine 10⁻⁵ M Cu(I) in the presence of Cu(II); SO₂, however, interferes with the method. Other possible methods including the use of a mixture of EDTA and 2,9-dimethyl-1,10-phenanthroline were also examined. Evidence is presented for the formation of a ternary complex of copper(I), 2-9-dimethyl-1,10-phenanthroline, and EDTA. The possibility of using a mixture of Cu(II) and 2,9-dimethyl-1,10-phenanthroline to determine SO₂ was tested. Oxygen was found to interfere with this method.