Empirical testing of a conceptual model to evaluate psychoeducational interventions.
Patient Education as Topic.
Attitude to Health.
Breast Neoplasms -- psychology.
Quality of Life.
Committee ChairBraden, Carrie Jo
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PublisherThe University of Arizona.
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AbstractPsychoeducational interventions are designed to assist clients to learn about their condition, to enhance their self-care practices, to promote well-being and prevent complications and to ultimately maintain or improve their life quality. Although results of individual and of meta-analytic studies supported the beneficial effects of psychoeducational interventions on multiple health-related outcomes for various client population, investigators expressed concerns regarding the quality of single-study reports. The most important criticism is the lack of explicit reference to a theoretical model guiding the design of the study, the selection of expected outcomes of the interventions, and lack of explicitly stated causal linkages between interventions and outcomes. In this research project, a comprehensive framework was developed and empirically tested as a model for evaluating the effectiveness of psychoeducational interventions, namely self-help classes, uncertainty management, and a combined intervention. Direct and moderating effects of extraneous variables (personal characteristics, severity of illness and resources), intervening variable (state anxiety) and intervention variables (components of psychoeducation and strength of intervention) on outcome variables (cognitive, behavioral, psychological and quality of life) were hypothesized. An experimental repeated measures design was used to test the hypothesized effects. Fifty-six women with breast cancer receiving adjuvant therapy were randomly assigned to one of the experimental groups. Data were collected at six points in time. Hierarchical linear modeling approach was used to analyze the data. Results indicated that although the interventions were effective in producing desired changes in selected outcomes, their effects were moderated by various extraneous and intervening variables. Education, sense of mastery, symptom extension, work status, size and use of social support strengthened the effects of the interventions, while trait anxiety, marital status, and number of symptoms experienced weakened the effects of the interventions on cognitive, behavioral, and psychological outcomes. Based on these findings, clinicians are encouraged to attend to the mode of delivery, intensity, and timing for implementation of the intervention, and to the characteristics of the intervener and clients, when planning, implementing, and evaluating psychoeducational interventions.