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dc.contributor.authorAtkinson, Dean Bruce
dc.creatorAtkinson, Dean Bruceen_US
dc.date.accessioned2011-10-31T18:39:06Z
dc.date.available2011-10-31T18:39:06Z
dc.date.issued1995en_US
dc.identifier.urihttp://hdl.handle.net/10150/187401
dc.description.abstractThe temperature dependence of the rate coefficient of radical-molecule reactions is studied using novel flow techniques. The methodology makes use of the cooling extant in uniform and free supersonic expansions to produce low temperature (90-250 K in the uniform expansion and near 1 K in the free jet) environments which are not at chemical equilibrium. The design of the axisymmetric Laval nozzles, which are integral in producing the uniform supersonic expansion, is reviewed in depth. The experimental details pertinent to the characterization and operation of the pulsed uniform supersonic expansion flow reactor are considered. The application of free jet flows for the study of radical-molecule reactions at temperatures near I K is also discussed. The rate coefficient of the atmospherically important termolecular reactions OH + NO and OH + NO₂ were investigated at several temperatures between approximately 100 and 250 K and pressures between 0.1 and 10. The results are found to be well fit by a simple k = CT⁻ⁿ dependence suggested by statistical unimolecular theory within the collision complex model. The suggested variation of the reaction, OH + NO, is k = 7.0(±2.0) X 10⁻³¹ (T/300 K)^(2.6±0.3) over the range 90 to 550 K. The reaction, OH + N02, displayed falloff behavior in the pressure range studied here, so recommendation of the absolute low pressure rate coefficient awaits further pressure dependent study. The purely bimolecular reaction, OH + HBr, has been studied at temperatures between 76 and 242 K using the pulsed uniform supersonic expansion flow reactor and near 1 K using the free jet flow reactor. This reaction displays a complex temperature dependence not well predicted by current dynamical theory. The results are evaluated in the light of previously obtained rate coefficients, generally at higher temperatures, and of theoretical predictions of the absolute value and temperature dependence of the rate coefficient. Impact on the modeling of low temperature environments is discussed.
dc.language.isoenen_US
dc.publisherThe University of Arizona.en_US
dc.rightsCopyright © is held by the author. Digital access to this material is made possible by the University Libraries, University of Arizona. Further transmission, reproduction or presentation (such as public display or performance) of protected items is prohibited except with permission of the author.en_US
dc.titleRadical-molecule reaction dynamics in the low temperature regime.en_US
dc.typetexten_US
dc.typeDissertation-Reproduction (electronic)en_US
dc.contributor.chairSmith, Mark A.en_US
thesis.degree.grantorUniversity of Arizonaen_US
thesis.degree.leveldoctoralen_US
dc.contributor.committeememberKukolich, Stephenen_US
dc.contributor.committeememberSalzman, W. Ronen_US
dc.contributor.committeememberArmstrong, Neal R.en_US
dc.identifier.proquest9622977en_US
thesis.degree.disciplineChemistryen_US
thesis.degree.disciplineGraduate Collegeen_US
thesis.degree.namePh.D.en_US
refterms.dateFOA2018-07-13T11:55:49Z
html.description.abstractThe temperature dependence of the rate coefficient of radical-molecule reactions is studied using novel flow techniques. The methodology makes use of the cooling extant in uniform and free supersonic expansions to produce low temperature (90-250 K in the uniform expansion and near 1 K in the free jet) environments which are not at chemical equilibrium. The design of the axisymmetric Laval nozzles, which are integral in producing the uniform supersonic expansion, is reviewed in depth. The experimental details pertinent to the characterization and operation of the pulsed uniform supersonic expansion flow reactor are considered. The application of free jet flows for the study of radical-molecule reactions at temperatures near I K is also discussed. The rate coefficient of the atmospherically important termolecular reactions OH + NO and OH + NO₂ were investigated at several temperatures between approximately 100 and 250 K and pressures between 0.1 and 10. The results are found to be well fit by a simple k = CT⁻ⁿ dependence suggested by statistical unimolecular theory within the collision complex model. The suggested variation of the reaction, OH + NO, is k = 7.0(±2.0) X 10⁻³¹ (T/300 K)^(2.6±0.3) over the range 90 to 550 K. The reaction, OH + N02, displayed falloff behavior in the pressure range studied here, so recommendation of the absolute low pressure rate coefficient awaits further pressure dependent study. The purely bimolecular reaction, OH + HBr, has been studied at temperatures between 76 and 242 K using the pulsed uniform supersonic expansion flow reactor and near 1 K using the free jet flow reactor. This reaction displays a complex temperature dependence not well predicted by current dynamical theory. The results are evaluated in the light of previously obtained rate coefficients, generally at higher temperatures, and of theoretical predictions of the absolute value and temperature dependence of the rate coefficient. Impact on the modeling of low temperature environments is discussed.


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