Negative polarity licensing and negative concord in the Romance languages.
AuthorPiñar Larrubia, Pilar.
KeywordsSpanish language -- Negatives.
Romance languages -- Negatives.
Grammar, Comparative and general -- Negatives.
Committee ChairBarss, Andrew
MetadataShow full item record
PublisherThe University of Arizona.
RightsCopyright © is held by the author. Digital access to this material is made possible by the University Libraries, University of Arizona. Further transmission, reproduction or presentation (such as public display or performance) of protected items is prohibited except with permission of the author.
AbstractThe purpose of this study is to contribute to the investigation of the semantics and syntax of Negative Words (N-words) in negative concord languages, with a focus on Spanish. An in-depth look into the syntactic behavior as well as into the meaning of terms such as nadie 'nobody', nada 'nothing', nunca 'never', etc., will provide some insight into the controversial nature of these words in the Romance languages as well as a better understanding of their peculiar pattern of distribution. On a larger picture, a thorough investigation of the semantics and syntax of these items will, in turn, contribute to a better understanding of the nature of negative polarity items in general. Thus, as I just anticipated, my conclusion is that N-words are in fact equivalent to negative polarity items, and that the phenomenon of negative concord, by which, in some languages, various negative items contribute only one semantic negation to a sentence, is a subcase of the crosslinguistic phenomenon of negative polarity licensing. In this respect, my analysis of N-words builds on the analyses of Bosque (1980) and Laka (1990). I base my conclusion that N-words are negative polarity items upon an extensive survey of comparative data coming from different Romance languages as well as from English, and I bring up new data and arguments supporting my view on the issue. In addition to arguing for the negative polarity nature of N-words, I also explore the extent to which syntactic operations are involved in the licensing of N-words, and I provide evidence showing that N-word licensing does not directly involve syntactic movement (contra most standard assumptions). Finally, in my investigation of the nature of N-words, I go beyond simply identifying them as negative polarity items. Specifically, I look deeply into the logicosemantic contribution of N-words, and I present arguments and data showing that N-words do not have either negative or any other kind of quantificational force. Rather, as I argue, they are better characterized as logicosemantic variables (in the sense of Kamp 1981 and Heim 1982.) In this regard, I depart from Bosque's (1980) and Laka's (1990) characterization of N-words. My view is more radical than theirs in that I do not just claim that N-words do not have inherent negative content, but also that they do not have any quantificational force of their own at all.
Degree GrantorUniversity of Arizona
Showing items related by title, author, creator and subject.
Perceptions of a changing environment: Extension of dispositional rules for negative behaviors to negative events and their impacts on causal and dispositional attributionsWright, Nolan Lincoln, 1955- (The University of Arizona., 1989)Negativity and Hedonic Relevance are examined as factors potentially influencing attributions associated with changes in the built environment. Ninety-nine male and female university students participated on a "survey" testing the extension of previous research identifying these variables as biasing perceivers toward asserting "person" as opposed to "situational" causation. As predicted, increased negativity resulted in significantly more inferences of negative dispositions to only implicitly involved actors. A significant interaction effect was also identified between negativity and gender, with males making more attributions of causality (blame) in response to a more negative event, as predicted for all subjects, and females making less. No new evidence for the role of Hedonic Relevance was identified due to failure of the associated manipulation. A greater focus on gender differences in future attribution research is recommended, as is a greater awareness among architects and planners of the psychological processes underlying the experience of environmental change.
Negative reception to caregiving: Its impact on the caregiverMiller, Wanda Ann, 1939- (The University of Arizona., 1994)This study examined negative reception to caregiving by a chronically ill spouse and the impact on the caregiving and the caregiver spouse. Quantitative and qualitative methodology were used. Audiotaped interviews using the Caregiver Impact Inventory (CII) (Miller, 1993) provided data on caregivers' perceptions of negative reception to caregiving by a chronically ill spouse. Perceptions of Caregiving (Oberst, 1991), Caregiver Burden Scale (Oberst, 1991), Caregiver Strain Index (Robinson, 1983), and Rosenberg Self-Esteem (Rosenberg, 1965), were implemented. Eight respondents indicated (CII) that negative reception to caregiving by a chronically ill spouse had a significant impact on the thoughts and feelings, and self-esteem of the caregiver. Caregiver spouses responded by reserving or withholding caregiving responses. The caregiver spouses indicated that moderate levels of threat, general stress and benefit (POC), moderate levels of burden (CBS), moderate levels of strain (CSI) and low-moderate self-esteem were experienced.
Effect of ErbB4 on Triple Negative Breast Cancer Cell Growth and MigrationYousif, Ahmed; The University of Arizona College of Medicine - Phoenix; Salhia, Bodour PhD (The University of Arizona., 2014-04)Members of the ErbB subfamily of receptor tyrosine kinases are critical regulators of normal mammary gland development, and alterations in their signaling have been associated with breast tumorigenesis. ErbB4 expression in breast carcinomas predicts improved patient survival and inversely correlates with tumor grade, metastasis and disease recurrence. When examined in the context of the breast cancer molecular subtypes, ErbB4 expression is rarely expressed in the triple-negative tumor subtype, which is associated with poor prognosis. Recently, our lab discovered a genomic context for the loss of ErbB4 expression in metastatic, refractory triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) samples by next generation sequencing technology. The goal of this study was to examine the effects of ErbB4 overexpression on the growth and migration of TNBC cell lines. A GFP-containing construct was used to overexpress ErbB4 in the ErbB4-negative TNBC cell lines BT-20, BT-549 and MDA-MB-468. An empty vector construct was used as the control. Expression was confirmed by western blot and fluorescence microscopy to detect expression of ErbB4 or GFP respectively. Cell motility and growth was assessed with a transwell migration assay and a sulforhodamine B assay to measure cell density, respectively. Our data indicates that overexpression of ErbB4 resulted in no significant difference in the migration of BT-549 or MDA-MB-468 cells but resulted in a slight increase in the migration of BT-20 cells. ErbB4 had a growth inhibitory effect on BT-549 and BT-20 cells but showed no difference in the growth of MDA-MB-468 cells. This data suggests that multiple ErbB4-mediated mechanisms occur to alter the growth of TNBC cells. Although the translational significance of ErbB4 loss may be in its ability to predict outcome in patients with TNBC, more work is needed to elucidate the molecular mechanisms mediating its function.