EFFECT OF AMMONIATION TREATMENT OF AFLATOXIN B1 ON MUTAGENICITY AND LEVELS OF AFLATOXIN M1 IN MILK.
AuthorEWAIDAH, ESAM HASSAN.
AdvisorPrice, Ralph L.
MetadataShow full item record
PublisherThe University of Arizona.
RightsCopyright © is held by the author. Digital access to this material is made possible by the University Libraries, University of Arizona. Further transmission, reproduction or presentation (such as public display or performance) of protected items is prohibited except with permission of the author.
AbstractSix lactating Holstein cows received ammonia-treated or untreated aflatoxin-contaminated whole cottonseed (AFWC) or pure AFB₁ with their regular ration. Treatments were: AFWC (5,010 ppb AFB₁), 4 kg/day; the same AFWC treated with 1.5% anhydrous ammonia and 10% water; pure AFB₁ (2.2 mg twice daily) given in capsules; same amount AFB₁ treated with 50% NH₄OH for 26 days at 29°C; same amount ammoniated AFB₁ acidified to final pH of 5.0; same treatment as first except concentration of AFB₁ was 5,511 ppb. Levels of aflatoxin M₁ (AFM₁) in milk were monitored before, during, and after each treatment, and conversion and feed-through ratios were calculated. Feed consumption and milk production were also measured. Mutagenicity of acetone extracts of spray-dried milk was determined using Salmonella/microsomal assay. Ammoniation of AFWC did not reduce concentration of AFB₁ to below FDA action level; however, when the seed was fed, the concentration of AFM₁ in milk was less than FDA action level (0.5 μg/L). Ammoniation of AFB₁ was very effective in reducing levels of AFM₁ in milk of treated cows to less than the FDA action level. The average AFB₁/AFM₁ conversion ratios for the steady-state period of AFM₁ excretion in milk while giving AFWC and AFB₁ was 1.06% and 1.18%, respectively. Ammoniation of AFWC reduced the average AFB₁/AFM₁ ratio to 0.20% during the constant-state period of AFM(,1) excretion in milk. The ration containing AFWC (5,010 or 5,511 ppb AFB₁) caused a highly significant decrease in total milk production and feed consumption; ammoniated AFB₁ decreased total milk production significantly. Complete disappearance of AFM₁ from milk after discontinuing Treatments 1-6 was 120, 48, 95, 72, 96, and 120 h, respectively. Under these laboratory conditions, significance of the results of the Ames test was questionable.
Degree ProgramNutrition and Food Sciences