THE IONIZATION/STRUCTURAL RELATIONSHIPS IN SOME METAL-MOLECULE AND QUADRUPLY-BONDED METAL-METAL INTERACTIONS.
AuthorBLEVINS, CHARLES HENRY, II.
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PublisherThe University of Arizona.
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AbstractThis dissertation describes the experimental study of the electronic-structural relationships of selected mononuclear transition-metal sulfur dioxide, cyclopentadienyl and carbonyl complexes and the application of the information gained from these to the study of quadruply-bonded dimetallic complexes. These pertinent observations result from the application of photoelectron spectroscopy (p.e.s.) as a probe into the bonding, charge-distribution and excited state effects which contribute to the specifics of the ground and excited state molecular structures. The first part of this discussion centers around a specific study of the exemplary bonding probe, SO₂, with the well characterized ArM(CO)₂ metal fragment, where Ar = Bz and Cp and M = Cr, Mn and Re. A comparison of the ionization information with the structural details and molecular orbital calculations reveals not only the surprising coordinating similarity of SO₂ and CO in these complexes, but also the electronic origin for the counter-intuitive SO₂ bonding configuration. This work then moves to a more dramatic example of electronic control of ground state molecular structure; the crystallographically determined distortion of the coordinated Cp ring in Cp*Rh(CO)₂. The electronic origin of this distortion is graphically shown with the aid of two and three dimensional experimental and theoretical electron density maps. The structural effects of removing bonding electrons from quadruply-bonded dimetallic complexes is then investigated. This study incorporates the use of high-resolution p.e.s. for the novel observations of metal-metal vibrational structure in the predominantly metal ionizations providing direct information of the bonding influence of specific metal electrons. Particular attention is focused on the delta-ionization process of MO₂(O₂CCH₃)₄. The final chapter presents a comprehensive study of the valence and core ionizations of the series of quadruply-bonded M₂(X₂CR)₄ complexes, where M₂ = Cr₂, Mo₂, MoW, and W₂, X = O and S, and R = H, CH₃, CD₃, CF₃, CH₂CH₃, CH₂CH₂CH₃ and C(CH₃)₃. The changes in the electronic structure in both the ground and excited states of these molecules is presented and, where appropriate, compared to structural changes. The study of this series not only demonstrates how p.e.s. can be used to monitor the electronic effects of specific chemical modifications, but also reveals surprising excited state features related to facile charge-reorganization processes.
Degree GrantorUniversity of Arizona
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Electronic structure investigations of multiple bonding between atoms: From metal-nitrogen triple bonds to metal-metal triple and quadruple bondsLichtenberger, Dennis L.; English, Jason B. (The University of Arizona., 2002)The nature of multiple bonding involving transition metal atoms has been explored via photoelectron spectroscopic and computational studies of molecules containing metal-metal quadruple and triple bonds as well as of molecules containing formal metal-nitrogen triple bonds. The principles governing the nature of the multiple bonding in these systems are similar whether the multiple bonding occurs between two transition metals or between a transition metal and a nitrogen atom. First, the electronic structures of the R₃M≡N molecules, where R = ᵗBuO (Cr, Mo, W); iPrO (Mo); (CH₃)₂CF₃CO (Mo); and Cl (Mo), are examined by photoelectron spectroscopy in conjunction with density functional calculations. To assign the features seen in the photoelectron spectra, close attention is paid to the effects of (1) metal substitution and (2) alkoxide (or Cl) substitution. Examination of the photoelectron spectra of the full series of alkoxide-substituted molecules allows the relative positions of the ionizations from the M≡N σ and π orbitals to be identified. Of great importance to the electronic structure of these molecules are the alkoxide orbital combinations that mix strongly with the M≡N σ and π orbitals. The importance of the ancillary ligand combinations is clearly demonstrated by the photoelectron spectroscopic and computational studies of Cl₃Mo≡N. The replacement of the alkoxide ligand with chlorides greatly simplifies the resultant photoelectron spectrum, allowing all of the valence ionizations to be assigned. Next, the bonding in the M₂X₄(PMe₃)₄ molecules, where M = Mo (X = Cl, Br); W (X = Cl); and Re (X = Cl, Br, I), is explored by photoelectron spectroscopic investigations in conjunction with electronic structure calculations. From these investigations, the ionizations from the metal-based orbitals as well as several ligand-based orbitals have been assigned. The first ionization energies of both the molybdenum (δ) and rhenium (δ*) molecules decrease as the electronegativity of the halide increases. The origin of this inverse halide effect is explored. Finally, the nature of the quadruple metal-metal bond in the M₂(chp)₄ molecules (M = Cr, Mo, W; chp = 2-chloro-6-oxo-pyridinate) is probed. For all three metal systems, an ionization from the M₂ δ orbital can be seen. This is only the second time a distinct ionization feature has been noted for ionization of the delta orbital from a dichromium molecule. Comparisons with the previously studied M₂(mhp)₄ molecules (mhp = 6-methyl-2-oxo-pyridinate) allow for a better understanding of the electronic structure of these molecules.
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