FACTORS AFFECTING THE EFFICIENCY OF NABIS ALTERNATUS AS A PREDATOR OF THE TOBACCO BUDWORM, HELIOTHIS VIRESCENS (F.).
AuthorAL-AZAWI, BEDIR MOHAMMED.
KeywordsHeliothis zea -- Biological control.
Cotton -- Diseases and pests -- Arizona.
MetadataShow full item record
PublisherThe University of Arizona.
RightsCopyright © is held by the author. Digital access to this material is made possible by the University Libraries, University of Arizona. Further transmission, reproduction or presentation (such as public display or performance) of protected items is prohibited except with permission of the author.
AbstractThe ability of Nabis alternatus Parshley to reduce tobacco budworm, Heliothis virescens (F.), populations was studied in the laboratory, greenhouse and field. Tests were conducted at different temperatures and with different larval instars of tobacco budworm to determine their effects on predatory efficiency. Both immature and adult N. alternatus consumed more first-instars than of either second- or third-instars, or of the egg stage. Temperature significantly affected the predatory capability of N. alternatus. All instars and the adult exhibited a higher rate of consumption at 30°C than at temperatures of 20, 25 and 35°C; adults consumed more tobacco budworm larvae and eggs at all temperatures than did any of the nymphal instars. There were no differences in survival of the different N. alternatus stages at the different temperatures but the average number of days required to complete each instar was affected. Each increase in the predator-to-prey ratio resulted in a reduced survival of the tobacco budworm population. Release rates of 2500, 3750 and 5000 adults per acre resulted in mortalities of 55, 77, and 87%, respectively. Both adult and third-instar N. alternatus exhibited the higher searching and consumptive capacities at different ratios of first-, second-, and third-instar tobacco budworm infestations. All N. alternatus fed more at the 1:4 (predator/prey) ratio than at ratios of 1:1, 1:2, or 1:3. Longevity of adult N. alternatus varied when provided with food substances of sugar solution, green bean, no food or cotton plants at the different temperatures. Survival was greatest when provided with sugar solution over any of the other substrates, and when held at cooler temperatures. Compatibility of N. alternatus with other controls was studied under both laboratory and field conditions. Average longevity in combination with treatments of Elcarᴿ, Bacillus thuringiensis, or fenvalerate was 6.7, 5.9, and 1.3 days, respectively. Compatibility with the biological insecticides was very good and the combinations reduced first-instar tobacco budworm infestations more than did either alone.