CARBON DIOXIDE LASER RADAR FOR MONITORING ATMOSPHERIC TRANSMITTANCE AND THE ATMOSPHERIC AEROSOL (REMOTE SENSING, INFRARED).
AuthorWINKER, DAVID MICHAEL.
KeywordsAerosols -- Measurement.
Atmospheric turbidity -- Measurement.
Carbon dioxide lasers.
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PublisherThe University of Arizona.
RightsCopyright © is held by the author. Digital access to this material is made possible by the University Libraries, University of Arizona. Further transmission, reproduction or presentation (such as public display or performance) of protected items is prohibited except with permission of the author.
AbstractAn incoherent CO₂ laser radar, or lidar, system using a tunable CO₂ TEA laser has been developed, along with analytical techniques to permit the determination of atmospheric transmittance and aerosol backscatter from multi-angle lidar returns. This work has been motivated by the need for a more complete knowledge of the optical properties of the atmosphere in the 9 to 11 μm spectral region. Results of preliminary observations are discussed. CO₂ lidar systems have been used before to measure backscatter and transmittance. Here, a new analytic method is developed, applicable to the 8-12 μm window region in conditions of high visibility, when the aerosol component of extinction is negligible compared to the molecular component. In such cases the backscatter sensed by the system is due to the atmospheric aerosol while atmospheric transmittance is determined by molecular species such as carbon dioxide and water vapor. It is not possible to assume a functional relationship between backscatter and extinction, as required by many previous analytic techniques. Therefore, a new solution technique based on a weighted, non-linear least squares fit applied to multi-zenith angle lidar returns has been developed. It is shown how constraints may be applied to rule out solutions which are unlikely on a priori grounds. An error analysis and a discussion of proper weighting techniques are presented. A CO₂ lidar system capable of acquiring multi-angle returns was developed, which included a gain-switching amplifier to compress the dynamic range of the return signal. The entire system is operated under computer control and data acquisition and storage are fully automated. A laser pulse energy monitor allows sequential returns to be averaged to reduce signal fluctuations. Preliminary observations with the system have demonstrated the capability of acquiring and averaging hundreds of returns on a routine basis. The return signal was observed to have fluctuations of 20 to 50% from shot to shot, due to atmospheric fluctuations. This result indicates signal averaging will be necessary to reduce signal fluctuations to levels where the multi-angle solution method may be applied.
Degree ProgramOptical Sciences