ETIOLOGY, PATHOLOGY AND CHARACTERIZATION OF VIRUSES FROM BEANS GROWING IN THE SONORA DESERT OF MEXICO (COWPEA, CHLOROTIC MOTTLE).
AuthorJimenez Garcia, Emilio
AdvisorNelson, Merritt R.
MetadataShow full item record
PublisherThe University of Arizona.
RightsCopyright © is held by the author. Digital access to this material is made possible by the University Libraries, University of Arizona. Further transmission, reproduction or presentation (such as public display or performance) of protected items is prohibited except with permission of the author.
AbstractSurvey of crops of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) in Sonora, Mexico revealed the presence of two isometric viruses and one flexuous rod virus on the basis of host reaction, particle morphology, serology and physico-chemical properties. The isometric viruses were identified as Bean Southern Mosaic Virus (BSMV) and Cowpea Chlorotic Mottle Virus (CCMV); the flexuous rod virus was identified as Bean Common Mosaic Virus (BCMV). Using bean cultivar differentials, two strains of the potyvirus BCMV were identified, NY-15 and a previously undescribed strain designated YV-1. Host range, serological tests, and RNA electrophoresis indicated that the Sonoran BSMV cultures are similar to BSMV-strain A. Serology and RNA-electrophoresis indicated that the Sonoran CCMV isolates are identical to CCMV-strain A. BSMV and CCMV were always isolated as a mixture from seed lots and from field collected bean tissue. BCMV occurred alone or in mixed infections with BSMV and CCMV. BCMV was seed transmitted with an average efficiency of 58 percent. The BSMV-CCMV mixture was transmitted with an efficiency of 6 percent. BSMV and CCMV were seed transmitted together, but separate transmission of BSMV or CCMV was not detected. Commercial seed lots from two major bean growing regions of Sonora (Hermosillo Coast, Sonora River) were contaminated with the BSMV-CCMV mixture but not with BCMV. The average contamination level was 13 percent. Two common weeds present in Sonoran agricultural areas were found to be potential alternate hosts of CCMV. Both Sisymbrium irio L. and Melilotus indica L. were infected systemically, although the infection in M. indica was latent. Potential losses due to Sonoran bean viruses were measured in greenhouse experiments with the cultivar Pinto 111. BCMV strains caused a 29.4 to 60.1% reduction, whereas BSMV-CCMV mixtures induced a 22.5 to 74.6% yield reduction. A synergism occurred between the BSMV-CCMV mixture and BCMV resulting in more severe symptoms and a yield reduction of 92.7%. Synergistic effects were also observed between BSMV and CCMV. Actual yield reduction resulted from impaired flower production and, consequently, reduced pod production. Significant effects on plant tissue production, flower fertilization and seed quality were not observed. Cowpea chlorotic mottle virus infected mung bean (Vigna radiata (L.) Wilczek) a previously unreported host. Infection of mung bean by BSMV was only possible when CCMV was present in the inoculum. Both BSMV and CCMV could be isolated from symptomatic plants infected with the BSMV-CCMV mixture, however, symptoms on mung bean were unchanged from infection by CCMV alone.
Degree ProgramPlant Pathology