THE EFFECT OF THE NATIVE LANGUAGE AND ENGLISH DURING INTERACTIONAL GROUP PSYCHOTHERAPY WITH INDONESIAN AND MALAYSIAN STUDENTS, AND THE EFFECTIVENESS OF THIS METHOD FOR FOREIGN STUDENTS FROM NON-WESTERN COUNTRIES.
KeywordsNative language -- Psychological aspects.
English language -- Psychological aspects.
Psychotherapy -- Cross-cultural studies.
AdvisorKahn, Marvin W.
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PublisherThe University of Arizona.
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AbstractLanguage and treatment modality are important variables in conducting psychotherapy with students from non-Western countries. Both variables might also have significant impact on therapeutic outcome. Foreign students in America speak at least two languages, and utilizing either their native language or English during sessions might result in different kinds of emotional expressiveness. Indonesian and Malaysian students are from countries where it is uncommon to express emotions publicly. Since language is a part of culture, using English might facilitate a distancing from their cultural context, and might also facilitate more verbal expressions of emotion. On the other hand, using their native language might facilitate a warm and "at home" atmosphere. The purpose of this dissertation is to study the effect of native language and English during interactional group psychotherapy with Indonesian and Malaysian students, and to assess the efficacy of this modality with foreign students. Yalom's interactional group psychotherapy was used with a group of Indonesian, a group of Malaysian, and a group of international students. These three treatment groups were compared to a group of international students who served as a control group. English and the native language were used alternately during the sessions with the Indonesian and Malaysian groups. Only English was used during the sessions with the international student groups. Objective measurements used were the Profile of Mood States, the Personal Orientation Inventory, the Group Environment Scale, the Group Climate Questionnaire, and the Subjective Evaluation Ratings Scale. Subjective measurement was independent judges. Results indicated that Indonesians and Malaysians rated themselves as significantly more active during sessions in English than during sessions in their native language. Raters perceived the Indonesian and Malaysian groups as more cohesive when sessions were conducted in the native language than when conducted in English. This study also indicated that interactional group psychotherapy was effective for foreign students, with some limitations. This treatment method was effective in improving mood states and personality profiles. The method was most effective for the Malaysians. In addition, this study also supported the notion that insight awareness therapy is effective for YAVIS (young, attractive, verbal, intelligent, successful) clients.