VARIATIONAL PRINCIPLES FOR FIELD VARIABLES SUBJECT TO GROUP ACTIONS (GAUGE).
AuthorSADE, MARTIN CHARLES.
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PublisherThe University of Arizona.
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AbstractThis dissertation is concerned with variational problems whose field variables are functions on a product manifold M x G of two manifolds M and G. These field variables transform as type (0,1) tensor fields on M and are denoted by ψ(h)ᵅ (h = 1, ..., n = dim M, α = 1, ..., r = dim G). The dependence of ψ(h)ᵅ on the coordinates of G is given by a generalized gauge transformation that depends on a local map h:M → G. The requirement that a Lagrangian that is defined in terms of these field variables be independent of the coordinates of G and the choice of the map h endows G with a local Lie group structure. The class of Lagrangians that exhibits this type of invariance may be characterized by three invariance identities. These identities, together with an arbitrary solution of a system of partial differential equations, may be used to define field strengths associated with the ψ(h)ᵅ as well as connection and curvature forms on M. The former may be used to express the Euler-Lagrange equations in a particularly simple form. An energy-momentum tensor may also be defined in the usual manner; however additional conditions must be imposed in order to guarantee the existance of conservation laws resulting from this tensor. The above analysis may be repeated for the case that the field variables behave as type (0,2) tensor fields under coordinate transformations on M. For these field variables, the Euler-Lagrange expressions may be expressed as a product of a covariant divergence with the components λʰ of a type (1,0) vector field on M. An unexpected consequence of this construction is the fact that the Euler-Lagrange equations that result for the vector field λʰ are satisfied whenever the Euler-Lagrange equations associated with the field variables are satisfied.