Cotton Report 1989
ABOUT THE COLLECTION
The Cotton Report is one of several commodity-based agricultural research reports published by the University of Arizona.
This report, along with the Forage and Grain Report, was established by Hank Brubaker, Extension Agronomist, after seeing a similar report published by Texas A&M University in the mid-1970’s.
The purpose of the report is to provide an annual research update to farmers, researchers, and those in the agricultural industry. The research is conducted by University of Arizona and USDA-ARS scientists.
Both historical and current Cotton Reports have been made available in the UA Campus Repository as part of a collaboration between the College of Agriculture and Life Sciences and the University Libraries.
Contents for Cotton Report 1989
- Outlook on Cotton Markets and Marketing for 1989
- Strategies to Capture Higher Gross Revenues
- The 1989 Upland Cotton Program: How Profitable for Arizona Producers?
- Cotton Response to Water and Nitrogen, 1988
- Response of Cotton to Various Fertilization Histories
- The Influence of Sewage Sludge on Nitrogen Availability, Crop Growth, and Yield at Marana, 1988
- Effects of Banded Phosphorus Fertilizer on Cotton
- Response of Cotton to a Preplant Zinc Sulfate Application
- Response of Pima Cotton to Zinc Fertilization in Pima County, 1988
- Successes and Failures in Foliar Applications to Correct Zinc Deficiency
- The Effects of Soil Compaction from Different Sewage Sludge Application Methods on Cotton Growth and Yield
- Energy Consumption and Yields for Cotton Tillage Systems
- Soil Amendments on Cotton, Safford Agricultural Center, 1988
- Phosphate Sorption of Several Arizona Soils
- Can Cotton (Cossypium hirsutum) Seed Vigor Be Assessed in the Absence of Growth?
- Effects of Oxygen Stress and Water Stress on Cotton (Gossypium hirsutum) Seed Growth
- Effect of Irrigation Termination Date on Defoliation and Yield of Upland Cotton
- Effect of Plant Nitrogen Status and Growth Regulators on Earliness, Effectiveness of Defoliants, and Yield of Upland Cotton
- Effects of Date of Planting on the Lint Yield of Several Cotton Varieties Planted at Four Locations in Arizona, 1988
- Defoliation Research on Pima Cotton at the Maricopa Agricultural Center in 1988
- Defoliation of Pima Cotton, 1988
- Earlier Timing Can Reduce Rainfall Losses
- Final Irrigation Timing of Upland and Pima Cotton
- The Probability of Temperature Thresholds for Defoliation
- Current Use of Module Makers
- Progress of Upland Cotton Harvesting
- Comparison of Irrigation Termination Dates on the Yield of Upland and Pima Cotton
- Hormonal Changes in Relation to Cutout
- Evaluation of PIX Multiple Application Treatments on Upland and Pima Cotton in Arizona, 1988
- Growth Regulator Test on Upland Cotton at the Marana Agricultural Center, 1988
- Regional Variety Test
- Variety and Date-of-Planting Test
- Short Staple Variety Demonstrations, Pinal County
- Short Staple Variety Demonstration, Graham County, 1988
- Short Staple Variety Trial, Cochise County, 1988
- Cotton Variety Observation, Safford Agricultural Center 1988
- Short and Long Staple Variety Trials, Greenlee County, 1988
- Cotton Variety Trial, Mohave Valley, 1988
- Pima Cotton Improvement
- Pima Cotton Genetics
- Irrigation Frequency During Fruiting as a Yield Determinant in Upland Cotton
- Comparison of Three Irrigation Scheduling Methods and Evaluation of Irrigation Leaching Characteristics
- Cotton Irrigation Scheduling, Safford Agricultural Center, 1988
- On Farm Cotton Irrigation Scheduling Management Using Infrared Thermometers in Arizona
- Scheduling Pima Cotton Irrigations Using Infrared Thermometers
- Tierra Prospera Farms CWSI Irrigation Scheduling Demonstration Test
- Aflatoxin Contamination of Cottonseed From Pink Bollworm Damaged Bolls
- Response of Texas Root Rot to a Soil Sterilant the Second Year After Application in Marana, 1988
- Response of Texas Root Rot to an Application of a Soil Sterilant in Marana, 1988
- The Effects of Methyl Bromide Fumigants on Verticillium Wilt on Two Varieties of Short Staple Cotton, Safford Agricultural Center, 1988
- Nematocide Treatment of Upland and Pima Cotton
- Management of Rootknot Nematode in Arizona Cotton
- Late Season Boll Weevil Infestations and Survival in a Cotton Bolls in Arizona
- Yield, Earliness, and Response to Pink Bollworm of a Resistant Line and a Standard Cultivar Treated with Ethephon and Untreated
- Profenofos as an Ovicide for Heliothis spp. In Short Staple Cotton and Comparison of the Ovicidal and Commercial Efficacy of Profenofos and Two Tank Mixes
- Application of Zinc Chelate and Ammonium Sulphate Supplements: Increased Damage to Cotton Foliage from Beet Armyworm and Cabbage Looper
Pima Cotton GeneticsSeed increase of 104 accessions and data collection on 65 accessions were obtained in 1988 to further the maintenance and evaluation of the Gossypium barbadense L. germplasm collection. In a program of conversion of tropical non flowering cottons to a day-neutral flowering habit, 63 accessions were advanced 1 generation by backcross. A systematic screening of the G. barbadense collection for bacterial blight resistance involving 200 accessions from 21 countries yielded 8 accessions resistant to races 1, 2, 7, and 18 of the pathogen. Genetic inheritance and linkage investigations of a male sterile and a foliar mutant progressed. An investigation of the geographic and taxonomic distribution of the ovate leaf trait was concluded with negative results. The frequency of the 2 mutant genes ov₁ and ov₂ proved to be too rare to yield meaningful taxonomic or geographic information about the species. Preliminary results from a performance evaluation of interspecific hybrid cottons conducted at Maricopa and Safford AZ, indicated strong environmental influences on hybrids, but generally favorable yield earliness and plant height data were obtained from the higher -elevation Safford location.
Application of Zinc Chelate and Ammonium Sulphate Supplements: Increased Damage to Cotton Foliage from Beet Armyworm and Cabbage LooperFoliar applications of zinc as a chelate or sulphate with ammonium sulphate to plots of cotton resulted in beet armyworm infestations with leaf damage that was 2.3 to 3.1 times greater than that in control plots.
Yield, Earliness, and Response to Pink Bollworm of a Resistant Line and a Standard Cultivar Treated with Ethephon and UntreatedAn experimental cotton line, WC-12NL (nectariless, okra leaf early maturing) was compared in large plot (2-acre) replicated experiments with a standard cultivar, 'Deltapine 61' ( nectaried, regular leaf shape, full-season), for 3 seasons, 1986 to 1984 at 2 locations, Maricopa, AZ and Brawley, CA. Ethephon ("Prep") was applied to half of each plot when the crop was ca. 60% open. Pink bollworm (PBW) eggs were counted twice weekly on bolls and the 2 cottons were sprayed separately for PBW control when the egg infestation on bolls reached the action level. Seed cotton was harvested weekly as soon as bolls started to open. Over the 3 seasons and 2 locations, WC 12NL yielded 12% more total lint, 43% more cumulative lint at the third harvest date, and required only 59% as much insecticide to control PBW as did Deltapine 61.
Late Season Boll Weevil Infestations and Survival in a Cotton Bolls in ArizonaStudies were conducted in Phoenix AZ, to determine the development of boll weevil, Anthonomus grandis Boheman, infestations in late - season cotton bolls, the pattern of boll weevil emergence, and survival /mortality in the bolls. Boll weevils emerged from bolls buried in moist vermiculite over a period of 232 to 239 days, from 29 January to 2 August. Higher percentages of emergence and lowest mortality in bolls occurred in bolls collected in November as compared to bolls collected in December. Few boll weevils emerged from bolls held under dry conditions in an outdoor insectary for 174 days. However, an average of 16% of the weevils were found alive in the dry bolls in late May.
Nematocide Treatment of Upland and Pima CottonThe loss of dying pima cotton after a rainfall in August 1987 made apparent the different responses pima and upland cottons have to stress. A trial compairing pima S-5 and DP 77 found more response of pima to treatment of rootknot nematodes with 1,3-Dichloropropene than the upland variety. A second trial found more response of DP 77 to 1,3-Dichloropropene treatment than from fenamiphos injection on sandy loam.
The Effects of Methyl Bromide Fumigants on Verticillium Wilt on Two Varieties of Short Staple Cotton, Safford Agricultural Center, 1988Methyl bromid/chloropicrin formulations were applied to strips in the verticillium nursery at the Safford Agricultural Center where two varieties of short staple cotton were subsequently planted. More robust plant growth and reduced incidence of disease were noted with some of the treatments. Yield increases over the check plots were also seen. A study of the residual effects of the treatments will be performed in 1989.
Response of Texas Root Rot to an Application of a Soil Sterilant in Marana, 1988Methyl bromide/chloropicrin (MB/C), a soil sterilant, was deep injected into cotton beds 6 days before planting in 1988. Application rates were zero, 300, 400, and 500 pounds of MB/C per acre, injected 18-inches deep into the sandy loam soil. Short staple lint yields in all of the MB/C treatments were significantly higher than the untreated check. MB/C at all application rates was 100% effective in preventing the plants from dying from the disease, while 86% of the plants in the untreated check plots died.
Response of Texas Root Rot to a Soil Sterilant the Second Year After Application in Marana, 1988Methyl bromid/chloropicrin, a soil sterilant, was deep injected into cotton beds 10 days before planting in 1987. The 1987 cotton lint yields were significantly increased by injecting the sterilant into the Texas root rot kill areas. Cotton yield and mortality data were taken in the same plots in 1988 to measure the carry-over of the treatments. Lint yields trended higher and plant mortality trended lower in the sterilant- treated plots, but no significant differences were detected.
Aflatoxin Contamination of Cottonseed From Pink Bollworm Damaged BollsAflatoxin contamination of cottonseed from bolls damaged by the pink bollworm was compared with contamination of cottonseed from undamaged bolls. Cottonseed produced in pink bollworm damaged bolls was the predominant source of aflatoxin contaminated cottonseed.
Scheduling Pima Cotton Irrigations Using Infrared ThermometersPlots of pima S-6 cotton were scheduled for irrigation using the Crop Water Stress Index (CWSI). Irrigations were applied when CWSI levels reached 0.08 (wet), 0.34 (medium), and 0.68 (dry) units. The medium treatment had significantly higher lint yield. Preliminary test results indicate the CWSI can be useful in irrigation-management decisions regarding pima cotton production.
Cotton Irrigation Scheduling, Safford Agricultural Center, 1988Cotton was grown using historical evapotranspiration data in the Erie method a checkbook method using real-time AZMET weather data, an infrared thermometer, and a faint manager to schedule irrigations. Yields of 4 bales per acre were recorded with no significant differences between the scheduling methods. Differences were seen in the plant growth and maturity. More refining will be done in subsequent investigations.
Comparison of Three Irrigation Scheduling Methods and Evaluation of Irrigation Leaching CharacteristicsThree methods were used to schedule irrigations on replicated plots at the Maricopa Ag Center using DPL 90 cotton. The three methods were: a soil water balance model based on historic consumptive use curves, a soil water balance model based on the Modified Penman Equation and daily weather (AZMET), and infrared thermometry using the C.W.S.I. A potassium-bromide conservative tracer was applied at selected sites in the plots to evaluate leaching characteristics. The irrigation scheduling test was duplicated at the Safford Experiment Station and is presented in another report. Results from the 1988 data indicate that there was no significant difference in yield between the 3 methods. There was a significant difference in water applied; the historic consumptive-use curves was the lowest and the Penman equation method was the highest.
Irrigation Frequency During Fruiting as a Yield Determinant in Upland CottonWhen cotton is irrigated at long intervals, the root systems become less effective at absorbing water during heavy fruiting, even when the soil is moist. That ineffectiveness, if not counteracted by frequent watering can exaggerate water stress responses during fruiting and promote early cutout. Deltapine 90 cotton was grown at the Maricopa Agricultural Center in 1988 and watered either by daily drip irrigation or by level -basin flooding. In the flood-irrigated plots, various schedules for applying water during fruiting were compared with minimal differences in total water applied. The check treatment (9 postplant irrigations) yielded approximately 2 bales of lint per acre. Small supplemental irrigations on 13 July and 22 July, splitting the normal irrigation cycles, increased yield 45% for only 6% more applied water. Daily drip irrigation in the trials increased yield 63% above the check on 1% more applied water over the season. The results show that flood- irrigated yields can approach drip-irrigated yields without excessive water use, if the irrigation cycle is shortened during fruiting.
Pima Cotton ImprovementFive experimental strains, P65, P67, P64 P69, P70, and pima S-6 were grown in 9 regional tests across the pima belt in 1988. Mean yields from the 9 locations showed that P67 averaged highest in yield followed by P69, P70, P65, P68 and pima S-6 respectively. The difference in mean yield between P67, the highest yielding entry, and pima S-6 was 82 pounds of lint per acre. Pima S-6 was the latest maturing and tallest entry in the regional test at Maricopa. The 5 experimental strains had longer, finer, and whiter fiber than pima S-6.
Cotton Variety Trial, Mohave Valley, 1988Seven upland cotton varieties and pima S-6 were demonstrated in Mohave Valley in Mohave County in 1988. The elevation there is 500 feet. Of the 7 upland varieties, 2 were new and had not previously been tried in the area; 1 had been tried for the first time last year. Pima S-6 was a new introduction to the Valley. Trial results indicated that the new introduction Tifcot 56 led the trial, yielding 901 lbs. of lint per acre. It was followed by DPL 90 at 886, DPL 50 at 884, DPL 77 at 819, BR 110 at 76$ DES 119 at 755, and Delcott 344 at 664. The first attempt at pima S-6 yielded 447 pounds of lint per acre. Its plot in 1988 was basically new ground that had not had a crop on it for the past 5 years.
Short and Long Staple Variety Trials, Greenlee County, 1988Two short staple variety trials and 1 long staple variety trial were harvested in Greenlee county in 1988. In the short staple trial comparing the new and experimental New Mexico acalas with 2 other lower quality varieties, Genhains new GC 260 was the top yielding variety with 1,087 pounds of lint per acre, but it came in fifth when comparing dollar value per acre because of the premium structure for the New Mexico acalas. Two new experimental acalas, 2745 and B510, produced the highest income per acre. The short staple trial, which tested longer - season varieties, had problems with low micronaire values. The newly released 1517-88 variety produced the top yield and produced the most income per acre. Two of the experimental long staple varieties topped the yield of S-6 and 3 of the 7 varieties tested yielded over 650 pounds of lint per acre.