• Sewage Sludge Effects on Soil Properties, Nitrogen Availability, and Yield at Marana, 1989

      Ottman, M. J.; Pepper, I. L.; Artiola, J. F.; Taylor, B. B.; Silvertooth, Jeff; Bantlin, Marguerite (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 1990)
    • The Influence of ULV Malathion, Applied for Boll Weevil Control, on Other Pest and Beneficial Species in Arizona Cotton Fields

      Leggett, J. E.; Silvertooth, Jeff; Bantlin, Marguerite (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 1990)
    • Effect of Irrigation Termination Date on Defolation and Yield of Upland Cotton for Short-Season Production

      Nelson, J. M.; Briggs, R. E.; Hart, G.; Silvertooth, Jeff; Bantlin, Marguerite (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 1990)
      A field study was conducted at the Maricopa Agricultural Center to determine the influence of plant water stress on the effectiveness of defoliants and yield of short season cotton. Irrigation termination dates of 11, 18 and 24 August were used to achieve different levels of water stress at the time defoliants were applied (1 September). Irrigation termination dates had little effect on the response of cotton to defoliants. Def-6 at the lowest rate tested, 0.75 lbs a.i./A, was less effective in defoliating cotton with a 24 August irrigation termination date than cotton terminated earlier. Dropp resulted in higher defoliation percentages and 30% fewer unopened bolls at harvest than Def-6. Although the irrigation termination dates provided a range of CWSI values at the time of chemical termination, no clear relationship was found between CWSI values and defoliation percentages. Short season cotton (149 days) produced 3.2 bales of lint/A compared to 4.4 bales for a full-season crop (208 days).
    • Evaluation of Date of Planting and Irrigation Termination on the Yield of Upland and Pima Cotton

      Silvertooth, J. C.; Watson, T. F.; Terry, L. I.; Malcuit, J. E.; Silvertooth, Jeff; Bantlin, Marguerite (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 1990)
      Three field experiments were conducted in 1989 in Arizona to evaluate the response of Upland and Pima cotton to two dates of planting and two dates of irrigation termination. Planting dates ranged from as early as 22 February in the Yuma Valley (150 ft. elevation) to 4 May at Marana (2,000 ft. elevation). Dates of irrigation termination ranged from 27 July in the Yuma Valley to 8 September at Maricopa and Marana. Based upon the final lint yield, planting date provided a significant main effect within two of the three experimental locations (Yuma Valley and Marana). At the Maricopa location, there was a significant effect on yield due to date of irrigation termination with both 30-inch- and 40-inch-row Upland cotton experiments, resulting in differences of 167 and 157 lbs. lint /acre, respectively, by extending two irrigations (approximately 12 acre inches) past 10 August to 8 September. The Pima experiment at Maricopa was similar with a significant (P <0.05) response to two additional irrigations (approximately 12 acre-inches) of 184 lbs. lint /acre. Return from additional lint yield must be considered against additional costs (water, insect control, etc.), as well as possible quality losses from insect infestations.
    • Regional Variety Tests

      Pegelow, E. J. Jr.; McAlister, A. C.; Silvertooth, Jeff; Bantlin, Marguerite (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 1990)
      Regional variety tests were conducted at Maricopa, and Marana Agricultural Centers in continuing cooperation with the beltwide testing program. The national standards included in this test were Coker 139, Deltapine 50, and Paymaster 145. Lint yields for each variety, at both locations, are given in Table 1.
    • Cottonseed Treatment Evaluations in Arizona, 1989

      Silvertooth, J. C.; Malcuit, J. E.; Silvertooth, Jeff; Bantlin, Marguerite (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 1990)
    • Short and Long Staple Variety Trials, Greenlee County, 1989

      Clark, Lee. J.; Silvertooth, Jeff; Bantlin, Marguerite (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 1990)
      Two short staple and one long staple variety trials were implemented in Greenlee County in 1989, with new varieties topping each trial. The most exciting new discovery was HS 46, which topped the competition in the short-staple trial by nearly 200 pounds of lint per acre. In the acala trial, the top four entries were composed of three New Mexico experimentals and Prema from the San Joaquin Valley. Any one of these acalas could become the new standard for the valley. P-69 in the long staple cotton trial yielded over 850 pounds of lint per acre and topped the S-6 yield by 25%. The testing program in Greenlee County is not only of benefit to the cotton producers and related agri-businesses in southeastern Arizona, but also to southwestern New Mexico.
    • Effects of Irrigation Termination Date on a Medium Maturity Type Upland Cotton

      Silvertooth, J. C.; Malcuit, J. E.; Stedman, S. W.; Silvertooth, Jeff; Bantlin, Marguerite (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 1990)
      A single field experiment was conducted in 1989 on a grower cooperator field to evaluate the response of a medium maturity type Upland cotton (DPL-50) to three dates of irrigation termination. The crop was planted 20 April and managed uniformly in all respects until 2 August when the earliest irrigation termination treatment was imposed. The dates of the second and final irrigation terminations were 17 August and 1 September, respectively. With each subsequent irrigation, the respective plots received an additional six acre inches of water (approximately). Harvest results revealed no significant (P <0.05) differences in lint yield due to irrigation termination treatments. Overall mean lint yield for the experiment was 1,228 lbs. cotton lint/acre, the experimental coefficient of variation (CV) was 11% and the observed significance level (OSL) was 0.34.
    • Irrigation Scheduling on Long and Short Staple Cotton, Safford Agricultural Center, 1989

      Clark, L. J.; Carpenter, E. W.; Scherer, T.; Slack, D.; Fox, F.; Silvertooth, Jeff; Bantlin, Marguerite (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 1990)
      Two irrigation scheduling trials were performed in 1989, one for short staple and one for long staple. Yields in the trials were very good with the best treatments yielding over 1700 and 1600 pounds of lint per acre for DP 90 and S-4 respectively. The treatment using Infrared thermometry was the best overall treatment in the short - staple trial, with the highest yield, the highest percent first pick, the shortest plants, the lowest water use and the highest water use efficiency. The two computer methods were very close to the IR treatment in yield and percent first pick, but grew taller plants with more water and were not as efficient with their water use. The trial on long staple cotton was encouraging in that reasonable yields were obtained using short-staple parameters. The computer model using AZMET data yielded significantly lower than the other treatments, indicating that we need to refine the evapotranspiration crop coefficients.
    • Comparison of Three Irrigation Scheduling Methods and Evaluation of Irrigation Leaching Characteristics

      Scherer, T.; Slack, D.; Watson, J.; Fox, F.; Silvertooth, Jeff; Bantlin, Marguerite (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 1990)
      Three methods were used to schedule irrigations during 1989 on replicated plots at the Maricopa Ag Center using DPL 90 cotton. This is a continuation of the research initiated in 1988 using the same field The three methods were; a soil water balance model based on historic consumptive use curves, a soil water balance model based on the Modified Penman Equation and daily weather (AZMET), and infrared thermometry using the C.W.S.I. A potassium- bromide conservative tracer was applied at selected sites in the plots to evaluate leaching characteristics. The irrigation scheduling test was again duplicated at the Safford Experiment Station and is presented in another report. Results from this years data indicate that there was no significant difference in yield among the three methods. However, as in 1988 there was a significant difference in water applied with historic consumptive use (ERIE) the lowest and the Penman equation method (CHECKBOOK) the highest.
    • Defolation of Pima Cotton, 1989

      Silvertooth, J. C.; Howell, D. R.; Thacker, G.; Stedman, S. W.; Winans, S. S.; Silvertooth, Jeff; Bantlin, Marguerite (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 1990)
      Four field experiments were carried out in several representative cotton producing areas of Arizona to evaluate the effectiveness of a number of defoliation treatments on Pima cotton. Variable conditions were encountered among the experimental locations in 1989 for treatment comparisons. However, it appears that consistencies in the effectiveness of several treatments for Pima defoliation offer a better basis for recommendations across the state.
    • Defolation Research on Pima Cotton at the Maricopa Agricultural Center in 1989

      Nelson, J. M.; Briggs, R. E.; Hart, G.; Silvertooth, Jeff; Bantlin, Marguerite (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 1990)
      A field study was conducted at the Maricopa Agricultural Center to evaluate the effectiveness of selected defoliation treatments on Pima cotton under warm and cool weather conditions. Dropp and other defoliants caused desiccation and freezing of leaves when applied at air temperatures above 100° F. Dropp was an effective defoliant when maximum air temperatures were in the low 90s. The experimental defoliant SN 597 NA218 appears to be a promising defoliant for Pima cotton when temperatures are cool.
    • Cotton Variety Trial, Safford Agricultural Center, 1989

      Clark, Lee J.; Carpenter, E. W.; Silvertooth, Jeff; Bantlin, Marguerite (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 1990)
      Forty-nine, short- staple varieties and Pima S -6 were grown in a replicated trial on the Safford Agricultural Center in Graham County. Most of the varieties were commercially available in the Cotton Belt, however, a few experimental varieties from the New Mexico acalas and from Delta Pines were included. Weather conditions were favorable through most of the year and the cotton produced well. Fifteen varieties produced more than 4000 pounds of seed cotton per acre, with the highest yielding variety producing 4759 pounds per acre. Delta Pine 77 was the highest yielding commercial variety but it was topped by an experimental New Mexico acala.
    • Short Staple Variety Trial, Cochise County, 1989

      Clark, Lee J.; Schwennesen, Eric; Silvertooth, Jeff; Bantlin, Marguerite (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 1990)
      The old standar4 1517-75, was the best yielding variety in 1989, yielding over three bales of lintper acre. 1517-77BR, which yielded well in 1987 and then dropped off a bit in 1988, carne in second and an experimental, 6658 came in third. The touted New Mexico star, 1517-88 came in fourth followed closely by California's Prema. Eight of the 10 varieties tested yielded over 2.5 bales per acre. More than normal heat units coupled with good management practices brought the highest yields yet recorded in a University cotton variety trial in Cochise County.
    • Plant Growth Regulator Research on Upland Cotton at the Maricopa and Marana Agricultural Centers in 1989

      Briggs, R. E.; Nelson, J. M.; Hart, G.; Silvertooth, Jeff; Bantlin, Marguerite (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 1990)
      Field tests were conducted at the Maricopa and Marana Agricultural Centers to evaluate the effectiveness of growth regulators on Deltapine 90 cotton. With full season management, the check treatment yielded as well as any of the growth regulator treatments at both locations.
    • Interaction of Pima Cotton Defoliation and Crop Water Stress Index

      Silvertooth, J. C.; Stedman, S. W.; Tollefson, J.; Silvertooth, Jeff; Bantlin, Marguerite (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 1990)
      A single field experiment was conducted in 1989 to evaluate the relationship of crop water status on Pima cotton defoliation by use of a crop water stress index (CWSI) as estimated by infrared thermometry. The entire study area was given the last irrigation uniformly on 24 August, and 20 row plots were outlined for the arrangement of three treatments in a randomized complete block design with three replications. Treatments consisted of making defoliant chemical application at three different targeted CWSI levels (0.40, 0.60, and 0.85). All defoliant treatments consisted of Dropp plus Accelerate (0.4 lb. and 1.5 pt. of material/acre, respectively) applied with a ground rig applicator. Results indicated no distinct advantage in terms of percent defoliation as a function of lower CWSI levels at which defoliants were applied. The defoliations made at 0.40 CWSI did result in more regrowth after 14 and 21 days. It appears from this test that Pima plants will defoliate satisfactorily with proper chemical treatments up to CWSI levels of 0.80. Further desiccation of the crop results in very erratic CWSI readings, resulting in difficulties in applying this technique to defoliation management. It does appear, though, that Pima cotton defoliation can be accomplished when CWSI readings are between 0.5 and 0.8 without substantial regrowth problems, providing precipitation or irrigation events do not occur.
    • Defoliation Research on Upland Cotton at the Maricopa Agricultural Center in 1989

      Nelson, J. M.; Briggs, R. E.; Hart, G.; Silvertooth, Jeff; Bantlin, Marguerite (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 1990)
      A field study was conducted at the Maricopa Agricultural Center to evaluate the effectiveness of experimental defoliants and adjuvants on DPL 90cotton. None of the defoliation treatments tested were effective in September when air temperatures were above 100° F. Several chemicals gave 80% or higher defoliation in early October when temperatures were in the low 90s. The experimental defoliant SN 597 NA218 appears to have promise as a late-season defoliant for DPL 90 cotton.
    • Short Staple Demonstrations, Graham County, 1989

      Clark, Lee. J.; Cluff, Ronald E.; Silvertooth, Jeff; Bantlin, Marguerite (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 1990)
      Short- staple variety trials were grown in two locations in Graham County in 1989. Exceptional weather conditions, coupled with good management practices, provided record cotton yields in the Safford valley. Delta Pine 77 was the highest yielding variety in the Thatcher location with a yield of 1740 pounds of lint per acre. An experimental acala from New Mexico came in second in this triad ahead of Delta Pine 90. Delta Pine 90 was the highest yielding variety in the Eden area with a yield of 1196 pounds per acre. Data on percent first pick plant height and plant populations are presented for each variety in each location. Graphs of heat units received each day throughout the growing season at the AZMET station on the Safford Agricultural Center are presented for 1988 and 1989.
    • Cotton Variety Trial, Mohave Valley, 1989

      Grumbles, R.; Malcuit, J.; Green, L.; Silvertooth, Jeff; Bantlin, Marguerite (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 1990)
      Seven cotton varieties including Pima S -6 were demonstrated in Mohave Valley, Mohave County in 1989. Of the six upland varieties two were new varieties not previously demonstrated in this area. Trial results indicated DP77 at 1697 lbs. led other varieties by 109 lbs. of lint over DP90, 1590 lbs. and 287 lbs. over bottom variety STV115 at 1412 lbs. STV110 yielded 1482 lbs., DES 119 at 1429 lbs., DP50 at 1414 lbs. Pima S-6 yielded 950 lbs. The two new varieties STV110 and STV115 placed last and third on yield but when economic values were calculated based on grade and price they ranked third and fourth. The second attempt on Pima saw an increase in yield from 447 lbs., the previous year to 950 lbs. in current trial.
    • Short Staple Variety Demonstration, Maricopa Agricultural Center, 1989

      Malcuit, J.; Silvertooth, J.; Silvertooth, Jeff; Bantlin, Marguerite (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 1990)
      A short staple variety trial was conducted on the demonstration farm, at the Maricopa Agricultural Center in 1989. Twenty varieties, received from various seed companies, were entered into the test. Results from the analysis showed significant differences among varieties with no observable performance trend in terms of maturity types (long or short season). The lint yields in this test ranged from 4679 to 3353 lbs. acre⁻¹ for DPL90, and S55 respectively.