• ABA and Auxin Contents of Squared and Flowers in Relation to Water Deficit Stress and Subsequent Young Boll Shedding

      Guinn, G.; Brummett, D. L.; Silvertooth, Jeff; Bantlin, Marguerite (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 1990)
      Water deficit increases boll shedding. Large squares, however, are much less likely to shed, possibly because they contain high concentrations of free and total auxin (indole-3-acetic acid or IAA). Our previous research indicated that much of this IAA disappears by the time the squares open as flowers and the IAA content remains low for about four days after anthesis. If water deficit decreases the IAA content, or increases the ABA conten4 of squares and flowers, then water deficit before flowering could have a carry-over effect and increase the shedding rate of young bolls that subsequently develop from them. In field plots, water deficit increased the ABA content of flowers as much as 66 %. Water deficit first decreased and later increased the concentrations of free and total IAA in squares that were analyzed about three days before anthesis. Flowers contained much less IAA than squares. Despite pronounced effects of water deficit on the IAA content of squares it is unlikely that it had any carry-over effect on the free IAA content of young bolls that subsequently developed from them. Water deficit slightly increased the total IAA content of flowers, but had no effect on their free IAA. Because water deficit increased the ABA content but did not decrease the IAAA content of flowers, any carry-over effect of water deficit on young boll shedding might have been from changes in ABA but not from changes in IAA before the young-boll stage.
    • Accumulation of Proline in Germinating Cotton (Gossypium hisutum L.) Seeds During NaCl Stress

      Lehle, F. R.; Zegeer, A. M.; Silvertooth, Jeff; Bantlin, Marguerite (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 1990)
      The accumulation of proline (Pro) in plants during NaCl stress may have adaptive significance and the study of this response could reveal a genetic strategy for enhancing NaCl tolerance. Our objective was to determine if the Pro content of germinating cotton seeds is altered by exposure to exogenous NaCl. Seeds were imbibed for 24 h at 32°C before transfer to agar media containing NaCl. After 24 h of NaCl exposure, the Pro contents of radicles and cotyledons were measured using a colorimetric assay. Results showed that Pro contents of both radicles and cotyledons increased as the level of NaCl increased. The bulk of Pro content increases were restricted to the radicle and occurred in the range of NaC1 concentrations from 200 to 400 mM NaCl.
    • A Comparison of Three Cotton Tillage Systems

      Coates, W. E.; Thacker, G. W.; Silvertooth, Jeff; Bantlin, Marguerite (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 1990)
      Two alternative tillage systems used significantly less energy than conventional tillage. The Sundance system used the least energy, averaging 35 horsepower-hours per acre (Hp-hr /ac), the Uprooter Shredder-Mulcher (USM) was intermediate at 50 Hp-hr /ac, and the conventional system used the most energy at 69 Hp-hr /ac. These energy savings translated directly into cost savings of about the same proportions. The USM and Sundance systems can plow down and prepare the next seedbed in about one-half the time that conventional tillage requires. In the two years of testing we could not measure any significant differences in cotton yield. So far, we have not found any significant differences in soil compaction.
    • Comparison of Three Irrigation Scheduling Methods and Evaluation of Irrigation Leaching Characteristics

      Scherer, T.; Slack, D.; Watson, J.; Fox, F.; Silvertooth, Jeff; Bantlin, Marguerite (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 1990)
      Three methods were used to schedule irrigations during 1989 on replicated plots at the Maricopa Ag Center using DPL 90 cotton. This is a continuation of the research initiated in 1988 using the same field The three methods were; a soil water balance model based on historic consumptive use curves, a soil water balance model based on the Modified Penman Equation and daily weather (AZMET), and infrared thermometry using the C.W.S.I. A potassium- bromide conservative tracer was applied at selected sites in the plots to evaluate leaching characteristics. The irrigation scheduling test was again duplicated at the Safford Experiment Station and is presented in another report. Results from this years data indicate that there was no significant difference in yield among the three methods. However, as in 1988 there was a significant difference in water applied with historic consumptive use (ERIE) the lowest and the Penman equation method (CHECKBOOK) the highest.
    • Controlling Purple and Yellow Nutsedge with Postemergence Applications of EPTC

      Chernicky, J. P.; Heathman, E. S.; Rodgers, C.; Hamilton, K. C.; Silvertooth, Jeff; Bantlin, Marguerite (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 1990)
    • Cotton Variety Trial, Mohave Valley, 1989

      Grumbles, R.; Malcuit, J.; Green, L.; Silvertooth, Jeff; Bantlin, Marguerite (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 1990)
      Seven cotton varieties including Pima S -6 were demonstrated in Mohave Valley, Mohave County in 1989. Of the six upland varieties two were new varieties not previously demonstrated in this area. Trial results indicated DP77 at 1697 lbs. led other varieties by 109 lbs. of lint over DP90, 1590 lbs. and 287 lbs. over bottom variety STV115 at 1412 lbs. STV110 yielded 1482 lbs., DES 119 at 1429 lbs., DP50 at 1414 lbs. Pima S-6 yielded 950 lbs. The two new varieties STV110 and STV115 placed last and third on yield but when economic values were calculated based on grade and price they ranked third and fourth. The second attempt on Pima saw an increase in yield from 447 lbs., the previous year to 950 lbs. in current trial.
    • Cotton Variety Trial, Safford Agricultural Center, 1989

      Clark, Lee J.; Carpenter, E. W.; Silvertooth, Jeff; Bantlin, Marguerite (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 1990)
      Forty-nine, short- staple varieties and Pima S -6 were grown in a replicated trial on the Safford Agricultural Center in Graham County. Most of the varieties were commercially available in the Cotton Belt, however, a few experimental varieties from the New Mexico acalas and from Delta Pines were included. Weather conditions were favorable through most of the year and the cotton produced well. Fifteen varieties produced more than 4000 pounds of seed cotton per acre, with the highest yielding variety producing 4759 pounds per acre. Delta Pine 77 was the highest yielding commercial variety but it was topped by an experimental New Mexico acala.
    • Cottonseed Treatment Evaluations in Arizona, 1989

      Silvertooth, J. C.; Malcuit, J. E.; Silvertooth, Jeff; Bantlin, Marguerite (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 1990)
    • Defolation of Pima Cotton, 1989

      Silvertooth, J. C.; Howell, D. R.; Thacker, G.; Stedman, S. W.; Winans, S. S.; Silvertooth, Jeff; Bantlin, Marguerite (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 1990)
      Four field experiments were carried out in several representative cotton producing areas of Arizona to evaluate the effectiveness of a number of defoliation treatments on Pima cotton. Variable conditions were encountered among the experimental locations in 1989 for treatment comparisons. However, it appears that consistencies in the effectiveness of several treatments for Pima defoliation offer a better basis for recommendations across the state.
    • Defolation Research on Pima Cotton at the Maricopa Agricultural Center in 1989

      Nelson, J. M.; Briggs, R. E.; Hart, G.; Silvertooth, Jeff; Bantlin, Marguerite (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 1990)
      A field study was conducted at the Maricopa Agricultural Center to evaluate the effectiveness of selected defoliation treatments on Pima cotton under warm and cool weather conditions. Dropp and other defoliants caused desiccation and freezing of leaves when applied at air temperatures above 100° F. Dropp was an effective defoliant when maximum air temperatures were in the low 90s. The experimental defoliant SN 597 NA218 appears to be a promising defoliant for Pima cotton when temperatures are cool.
    • Defoliation Research on Upland Cotton at the Maricopa Agricultural Center in 1989

      Nelson, J. M.; Briggs, R. E.; Hart, G.; Silvertooth, Jeff; Bantlin, Marguerite (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 1990)
      A field study was conducted at the Maricopa Agricultural Center to evaluate the effectiveness of experimental defoliants and adjuvants on DPL 90cotton. None of the defoliation treatments tested were effective in September when air temperatures were above 100° F. Several chemicals gave 80% or higher defoliation in early October when temperatures were in the low 90s. The experimental defoliant SN 597 NA218 appears to have promise as a late-season defoliant for DPL 90 cotton.
    • Early-season Cotton Square Removal with Ethephon and Initiation of Pink Bollworm Infestations

      Henneberry, T. J.; Bariola, L. A.; Chu, C. C.; Meng, T. Jr.; Deeter, B.; Silvertooth, Jeff; Bantlin, Marguerite (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 1990)
      Ethephon applied at rates of 0.50 or 0.75 lb AI/acre removed early-season squares and delayed initiation of pink bollworm, Pectinophora gossvpiella (Saunders) infestations and reduced the number of infested bolls on early-season fruiting branches, without affecting yield except for ethephon at 0.751b AI /acre at one location. Higher rates of application reduced yields. In most cases, ethephon treatments delayed flowering but plants compensated for removal of early- season squares and equalled or surpassed accumulated flowering of untreated control plants later in the season.
    • Effect of Date of Planting and Irrigation Termination on Pink Bollworm Populations in Pima and Upland Cotton

      Terry, L. I.; Silvertooth, J. C.; Summers, C.; Silvertooth, Jeff; Bantlin, Marguerite (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 1990)
      Field experiments conducted in 1989 comparing effects of planting date and irrigation termination date on pink bollworm in both in- season and overwintering infestations indicated different responses depending upon the location and type of cotton. Tests were located at: Yuma Agricultural Center; Marana Agricultural Center; and Maricopa Agricultural Center. Infestations at Yuma ranged from 0% at early flowering to 80% infested bolls prior to harvest. Marana had equally high infestations at the end of the season, while Maricopa had the lowest infestations ranging from 2% to 5% for Pima and 3 %-17% for Upland. Planting date or species of cotton did not affect early infestation. Data comparing plots for overwintering infestations are still being evaluated. Continuous insecticide treatments were made at all locations after squaring began.
    • Effect of Harvest Date on Aflatoxin Contamination in the Yuma Valley

      Cotty, P. J.; Silvertooth, Jeff; Bantlin, Marguerite (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 1990)
      Experiments were performed at the Yuma Valley Agricultural Center to determine how timely harvest of cotton may affect aflatoxin contamination of cottonseed As the cotton was held in the field between the final irrigation and harvest, the quantity of aflataxin in the crop increased. Significant reductions in aflatoxin contents of seed were realized by harvesting in early September.
    • Effect of Irrigation Termination Date on Defolation and Yield of Upland Cotton for Short-Season Production

      Nelson, J. M.; Briggs, R. E.; Hart, G.; Silvertooth, Jeff; Bantlin, Marguerite (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 1990)
      A field study was conducted at the Maricopa Agricultural Center to determine the influence of plant water stress on the effectiveness of defoliants and yield of short season cotton. Irrigation termination dates of 11, 18 and 24 August were used to achieve different levels of water stress at the time defoliants were applied (1 September). Irrigation termination dates had little effect on the response of cotton to defoliants. Def-6 at the lowest rate tested, 0.75 lbs a.i./A, was less effective in defoliating cotton with a 24 August irrigation termination date than cotton terminated earlier. Dropp resulted in higher defoliation percentages and 30% fewer unopened bolls at harvest than Def-6. Although the irrigation termination dates provided a range of CWSI values at the time of chemical termination, no clear relationship was found between CWSI values and defoliation percentages. Short season cotton (149 days) produced 3.2 bales of lint/A compared to 4.4 bales for a full-season crop (208 days).
    • Effect of NaCl on the Growth of Germinating Upland Cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) Seeds

      Lehle, F. R.; Zegeer, A. M.; Silvertooth, Jeff; Bantlin, Marguerite (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 1990)
      Responses to environmental stresses such as excess salinity are difficult to understand if not studied under defined conditions. The objective of this study was to determine if cottonseed radicle and cotyledon growth during germination was affected by exogenous NaCl. Cottonseeds were imbibed in moistened paper toweling for 24 h at 32°C before transfer to an agar media containing selected concentrations of NaCl for an additional 24 h. Radicle linear growth extension was stimulated at low NaC1 concentrations (80 mM), but increasingly inhibited as NaCl concentrations increased from 160 to 400 mM. Radicle and cotyledon fresh weights were increasingly inhibited by NaCl concentrations between 0 and 400 mM. NaCl inhibition of radicle fresh weights was more pronounced than that of cotyledons. We conclude that the inhibitory effects of NaCl can be quantified as reductions in cottonseed radicle and cotyledon growth.
    • Effect of Plant Nitrogen Status on Effectiveness of Pix and Defoliants for Short-Season Cotton Production

      Nelson, J. M.; Briggs, R. E.; Hart, G.; Silvertooth, Jeff; Bantlin, Marguerite (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 1990)
      A field study was conducted at the Maricopa Agricultural Center to determine the effect of nitrogen fertility level on the effectiveness of PIX and defoliants for short- season - cotton production. Increasing the nitrogen fertility level from 90 lbs N/A to 240 lbs N/A increased lint yields from 2.23 to 3.14 bales/A, respectively, in a 157-day growing season. FIX treatments did not promote earliness, and resulted in yield reductions. Increasing the application rates of Dropp from 0.1 to 0.2 lbs a.i./A and Def-6 from 0.75 to 1.13 lbs a.i./A resulted in increases in leaf drop. There was a significant linear decrease in the effectiveness of defoliants as the petiole NO3 N content increased from 850 to 2450 ppm.
    • The Effect on Yield of Cotton Due to Incidence and Severity of Black Root Rot Caused by Thielaviopsis Basicola

      Chapman, M. A.; Hine, R. B.; Silvertooth, Jeff; Bantlin, Marguerite (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 1990)
      Incidence of Black Root Rot of cotton and soil inoculum potential of the causal agent Thielaviopsis basicola were monitored throughout the season in two adjacent fields planted in mid April, 1987 in Duncan, Arizona. Mean inoculum potential in Field 1 soil was 65 cfu/g and 20 % of the seedlings were infected. In Field 2 the inoculum potential and percentage of infected plants were 225 cfu/g and 93, respectively. No cortical decay was noted after June 6 in either field. Yields were similar in both fields.
    • Effects of Date of Planting on the Yield of Four Cotton Varieties at Yuma, Arizona

      Malcuit, J. E.; Howell, D. R.; Silvertooth, J. C.; Silvertooth, Jeff; Bantlin, Marguerite (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 1990)
      A field experiment was conducted in Yuma, Arizona, to evaluate the effects of planting date on cotton yields. One Pima and the Upland cotton varieties were planted on four dates from 23 February to 5 April. DPL-90 produced the highest yield (1760 lbs lint acre⁻¹) at the second planting date (9 March). The lowest yields, for all varieties, resulted from the latest planting date (5 April). The greatest reductions in yield when comparing an early planting date to the latest planting date, were observed for DPL-90 and Pima S-6. However, in spite of the reduction in yield, DPL-90 was the highest yielding variety at the latest planting date.
    • Effects of Irrigation Termination Date on a Medium Maturity Type Upland Cotton

      Silvertooth, J. C.; Malcuit, J. E.; Stedman, S. W.; Silvertooth, Jeff; Bantlin, Marguerite (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 1990)
      A single field experiment was conducted in 1989 on a grower cooperator field to evaluate the response of a medium maturity type Upland cotton (DPL-50) to three dates of irrigation termination. The crop was planted 20 April and managed uniformly in all respects until 2 August when the earliest irrigation termination treatment was imposed. The dates of the second and final irrigation terminations were 17 August and 1 September, respectively. With each subsequent irrigation, the respective plots received an additional six acre inches of water (approximately). Harvest results revealed no significant (P <0.05) differences in lint yield due to irrigation termination treatments. Overall mean lint yield for the experiment was 1,228 lbs. cotton lint/acre, the experimental coefficient of variation (CV) was 11% and the observed significance level (OSL) was 0.34.