• Evaluation of Crop Management Effects on Fiber Micronaire, 2000-2001

      Silvertooth, J. C.; Galadima, A.; Tronstad, R. (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 2002-06)
      Arizona has experienced a trend toward increasing fiber micronaire values in recent years resulting in substantial discounts on fiber value. There is some evidence to suggest management can influence fiber micronaire. Approximately 400 cases were identified in cotton production areas in Arizona ranging from the lower Colorado River Valley to near 2,000 ft. elevation with grower cooperators in the 2000 and 2001 seasons. Field records were developed for each field by use of the University of Arizona Cotton Monitoring System (UA-CMS) for points such as variety, planting date, fertility management, irrigation schedules, irrigation termination, defoliation, etc. Routine plant measurements were conducted to monitor crop growth and development and to identify fruiting patterns and retention through the season. As the crop approached cutout and the lower bolls began to open, open boll samples were then collected from the lowest four, first position bolls (theoretically the bolls with the highest micronaire potential on the plant) from 10 plants, ginned, and the fiber analyzed for micronaire (low 4). From that point forward, total boll counts per unit area and percent open boll measurements are being made on 14-day intervals until the crop is defoliated. Following defoliation, final plant maps were performed. Relationships among low 4 sample micronaire, irrigation termination (IT), defoliation, and final crop micronaire were analyzed. Results indicate strong relationships with final fiber micronaire for factors such as total heat units (HU) accumulated by the crop from planting to IT, variety, region of production (environment), and green boll load at cutout. Results showed that as total HU accumulated from planting to IT exceeded approximately 2950 HU, micronaire levels significantly increased.
    • Evaluation of Manganese Fertility of Upland Cotton in the Lower Colorado Valley

      Silvertooth, J. C.; Galadima, A. (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 2002-06)
      A field experiments was conducted during the 2001 growing season to evaluate the effect of Manganese (Mn) fertility on growth, development, and yield of a commonly grown upland cotton variety in the Yuma Valley of Arizona. This project also provided an evaluation of the University of Arizona (UA) critical level for Mn fertility for cotton (1.0 ppm Mn). The study consisted of two treatments, which included an untreated control and a treatment receiving two foliar applications each of a pint of the product 3-0-0-27.4 using 18gal./acre carrier. Plant growth and development measurements, including estimates of fruit retention (FR) levels and height to node ratios (HNR’s) were similar for both treatments during the season. There was not a significant difference in lint yield between the control (untreated) and the treated plots. These results support the current UA Mn fertility guideline for cotton on not applying Mn when soil test levels exceed 1.0 ppm.
    • Evaluation of Potassium Fertility in a Common Agricultural Soil of Arizona

      Silvertooth, J. C.; Galadima, A. (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 2002-06)
      Two field experiments were conducted during the 2001 growing season to address potassium (K) fertility response of two commonly grown varieties of cotton in Arizona. The studies were conducted near Coolidge, AZ in two separate fields and each consisted of two treatments, an untreated control and a treatment receiving a preseason side-dress application of K fertilizer. Plant growth and development estimates revealed that fruit retention (FR) and height to node ratio (HNR) levels were similar for both treatments in both fields. Lint yield data also indicated no difference between the fertilized and unfertilized treatments in both fields.
    • Residual Soil Nitrogen Evaluations in Irrigated Desert Soils, 2001

      Silvertooth, J. C.; Galadima, A.; Norton, E. R. (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 2002-03-18)
      Field experiments were conducted in Arizona in 2001 at three locations (Maricopa, Marana, and Safford). The Maricopa and Safford experiments have been conducted for14 consecutive seasons and the Marana site was initiated in 1994. The original purposes of the experiments were to test nitrogen (N) fertilization strategies and to validate and refine N fertilization recommendations for Upland (Gossypium hirsutum L.) and American Pima (G. barbadense L.) cotton. The experiments have each utilized N management tools such as pre-season soil tests for NO₃⁻-N, in-season plant tissue testing (petioles) for N fertility status, and crop monitoring to ascertain crop fruiting patterns and crop N needs. At each location, treatments varied from a conservative to a more aggressive approach of N management. Results at each location revealed a strong relationship between the crop fruit retention levels and N needs for the crop. This pattern was further reflected in final yield analysis as a response to the N fertilization regimes used. The higher, more aggressive, N application regimes did not benefit yields at any location. Generally, the more conservative, feedback approach to N management provided optimum yields at all locations. In 2001, a transition project evaluating the residual N effects associated with each treatment regime was initiated and no fertilizer N was applied. Therefore, all N taken-up by the crop was derived from residual soil N. In 2001 there were no significant differences among the original fertilizer N regimes in terms of residual soil NO₃⁻-N concentrations, crop growth, development, lint yield, or fiber properties. The lint yields were very uniform at each location and averaged 1500, 1100, and 850 lbs. lint/acre for Maricopa, Marana, and Safford, respectively.