• Marana Pima Test, 1997

      Hart, G. L.; Nelson, J. M.; Barney, Glen; Silvertooth, Jeff (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 1998-04)
      Nine pima cotton varieties were grown at Marana Agricultural Center as part of the national cotton variety testing program. Lint yield, boll size, lint percent, and plant population are presented in this report.
    • Infection of Sorghum Varieties by the Cotton Root-knot Nematode, Meloidogyne incognita

      McClure, M.; Husman, S.; Schmitt, M.; Silvertooth, Jeff (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 1998-04)
      Twentythree varieties of sorghum, Sorghum bicolor, were evaluated for susceptibility to the cotton root -knot nematode, Meloidogyne incognita race 3. Eggs per gram of root were used as a measure of nematode reproduction and host susceptibility. The nematode reproduced on all varieties tested Mean egg counts were lowest on the varieties Northrup King (NK) KS-737, MF.; NK 1580,M; NK Ks-735 M.F.; NK 714Y MF.; NK Lt. Bronze X 609 M; Ciba-NK C-1506, M; and Pioneer 8877, but these varieties are still considered to be hosts capable of sustaining or increasing nematode populations in cotton fields. All varieties were better hosts than cotton.
    • Foliar Fertilizer Evaluation on Upland Cotton, 1997

      Silvertooth, J. C.; Norton, E. R.; Ozuna, S. E.; Silvertooth, Jeff (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 1998-04)
      A single field experiment was conducted in 1997 at the University of Arizona Yuma Valley Agricultural Center. The purpose of the experiment was to evaluate foliar applications of Macro Sorb (L form amino acids) and KeyPlex (chelated micronutrients and alpha keto amino acids) foliar fertilization materials on Upland cotton. Treatments consisted of various rates and times of application of the foliar materials based upon manufacturer recommendations. Results from this single experiment revealed no differences among treatments with respect to in-season plant measurements, tissue N concentrations, or lint yield.
    • Spatial Analysis of Aspergillus flabus S and L Strains

      Orum. T. V.; Bigelow, D. M.; Cotty, P. J.; Nelson, M. R.; Silvertooth, Jeff; Department of Plant Pathology, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ; USDA/ARS/SRRC, New Orleans, LA (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 1998-04)
      The distribution of S and L strains of Aspergillus flavus is more stable than previously realized. Analysis with GIS/geostatistics shows that patches of similar S strain incidence persist over years. This information will be exceptionally useful to programs involved with or planning large-scale treatments to reduce aflatoxin contamination because it can be used to spatially focus treatments.
    • 1997 Cottonseed Variety and Treatment Evaluation

      Knowles, Tim C.; Wakimoto, Del; Silvertooth, Jeff (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 1998-04)
      Three upland cotton varieties (Deltapine 5415, Stoneville 474, and SureGrow 125) were subjected to three seed treatments (non or control, standard commercial triple treated, and standard commercial plus Prevail added to the hopper box at 1 lb product /100 lb cottonseed) to determine seed germination and vigor in a Mohave Valley field prone to Rhizoctonia infection of cotton seedlings.
    • Evaluation of a Feedback Approach to Nitrogen and Pix Applications, 1997

      Silvertooth, J. C.; Norton, E. R.; Silvertooth, Jeff (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 1998-04)
      A single field experiment was conducted in 1997 at Marana, AZ to compare a scheduled approach (based on stage of growth) versus a feedback approach (based on growth parameters) to both nitrogen (N) and mepiquat chloride (P1X) applications on Upland cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.). PIX feedback treatments were based upon fruit retention (FR) levels and height to node ratios (HNRs) with respect to established baselines for Arizona growing conditions. Scheduled and feedback FIX applications were made for a total of 0.75 and 1.50 pt./acre, respectively, with the scheduled treatments being initiated earlier in the fruiting cycle (early and peak bloom). Feedback PIX treatments consisted of a single 0.75 pt./acre application near peak bloom (approx. 2000 heat units after planting, HUAP, 86/55 °F threshold). Scheduled applications of fertilizer N totaled 150 lbs. N/acre from two applications and feedback N treatments received a total of 100 lbs. N/acre from two applications. Treatments consisted of all combinations of scheduled or feedback applications of both N and PIX. The highest lint yields were from treatments receiving PIX applications, with significant differences (P ≥ 0.05) between a check treatment (with no FIX applications) and several other treatments that did receive PIX applications. If FIX was applied, there were no significant differences between the scheduled or feedback approach. Applications of PIX in relation to increasing HNRs (feedback approach) are demonstrated and reinforced in this study.
    • Can Resistance to Chloronicotynl Insecticides be Averted in Arizona Field Crops?

      Williams, Livy III; Denney, Timothy J.; Palumbo, John C.; Silvertooth, Jeff; Department of Entomology, The University of Arizona; Extension Arthropod Resistance Management Laboratory, Tucson, AZ; Yuma Agricultural Center, Yuma, AZ (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 1998-04)
      A resistance management program was initiated in Arizona in 1995, the initial goal of which was to sustain the efficacy of imidacloprid (Admire®) against Bemisia in vegetable crops. Due to the anticipated registration of additional chloronicotinyl (and related neonicotinyl) insecticides in Arizona, project objectives were subsequently broadened to address management of this entire class of insecticides in Arizona field crops. Results from three years of statewide monitoring of whiteflies from cotton indicated that whitefly populations in Arizona have become significantly less susceptible to imidacloprid in each of the past two years and significant geographical differences were described. However, no evidence was found of reduced field performance of imidacloprid in vegetables. Additionally, laboratory studies subjecting Arizona whiteflies to selection with imidacloprid did not increase levels of resistance beyond those occurring in the field. A study exploring the influence of cropping system differences on imidacloprid use (Admire® and Provado®) revealed no major differences in susceptibility to this insecticide between populations of whiteflies in central and southwestern Arizona. However, distinct seasonal shifts to lower susceptibility from 1996 to 1997 were observed in the Dome Valley of southwestern Arizona. Susceptibility of Arizona whitefly populations to imidacloprid was highly correlated with susceptibility to acetamiprid but was unrelated to susceptibility to CGA-293343. There is an urgent need to harmonize chemical use and resistance management efforts in Arizona cotton, vegetables and melons to avoid conflicts resulting from movement of pests between crops.
    • Whitefly Management in Arizona: Looking at Whole Systems

      Ellsworth, P. C.; Naranjo, S. E.; Castle, S. J.; Hagler, J.; Henneberry, T. J.; Silvertooth, Jeff (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 1998-04)
      Whiteflies remain a threat to production of cotton in Arizona. Looking at a series of commercial-scale trials, levels last season were delayed compared to previous years, but at higher densities than in 1995, an outbreak year. Efforts must be expended to optimize insect growth regulator (IGR) use and integrate these tactics with other aspects of crop and pest management. Broad spectrum insecticide use prior to treatment for whiteflies with IGRs alters the ecology of the system. Whitefly densities consistently increased after disruption with a Lygus insecticide relative to Lygus -untreated areas. While Lygus control is a production imperative, guidelines are presented for minimizing the impact of this disruption. The modes of action for the two IGRs differ substantially and result in subtle changes in population age structure and dynamics. The consequences of these changes impact natural enemies and should be noted by producers when selecting an IGR or monitoring populations after treatment. Re- treatment after initial IGR sprays depends on many factors. While apparently similar levels of suppression are possible when only one IGR is used, regimes using both available IGRs resulted in the fewest number of damaging large nymphs late in the season, just prior to defoliation. Conventional insecticides rotated according to pre-IGR introduction guidelines (`95IRM') also suppressed populations significantly and comparably to IGR regimes until late in the season. Then, whitefly densities rose aggressively just prior to defoliation and pyrethroid susceptibility was significantly reduced in the 951RM regime. Full adoption of IGR -based technology along with `Bt' cotton allows growers to better manage whiteflies with fewer disruptions which can lead to secondary pest outbreaks, pest resurgence, and insecticide resistance.
    • Evaluation of a Nitrogen-15 Microplot Design in a Furrow Irrigated Row Crop System

      Silvertooth, J. C.; Navarro, J. C.; Norton, E. R.; Sanchez, C. A.; Silvertooth, Jeff (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 1998-04)
      Two field experiments were conducted in Arizona in at two locations, Maricopa in 1991 (Casa Grande sandy loam) and Marana (Pima clay loam) in 1995. The purposes of the experiments were to evaluate the dimensions of an ¹⁵N microplot design used in a furrow irrigated row crop system. The experiments each utilized ammonium sulfate fertilizer with 5 atom % ¹⁵N enrichment applied at a rate of 56 kg N/ha in simulated side-dress band application during the early bloom stage of development of Upland cotton (Gossvpium barbadense L). At each location, microplots were 4, 1.02 m rows wide and 1.00 m in length. Whole plant samples were collected at specific locations within and near the microplots. Uptake of ¹⁵N by plants was uniform within microplots but declined symmetrically in relation to microplot borders. Collection of plant materials within 25 cm of microplot borders provided uniform ¹⁵N enrichment levels for determining fertilizer N uptake and recovery. Use of microplots with the dimensions of those used in this study are sufficient for collecting plant materials from a 1 m² area; consisting of two, 50 cm segments from the interior two rows of the four row microplot. This also allows for sufficient distance from the perimeter of the microplot to account for border effects.
    • Voluntary Area-Wide Whitefly Monitoring Project Implementation 1995-1997, Gila Bend, AZ

      Husman, S. H.; Jech, L. E.; Silvertooth, Jeff (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 1998-04)
      Growers, Pest Control Advisors (PCA), and University of Arizona Cooperative Extension personnel formulated and coordinated area-wide pest management strategies in the production area near Gila Bend, Az. from 1995-97. The primary pest target was whitefly with secondary control strategy implementation for pink bollworm in 1995. In 1995-1996, the coordinated effort encompassed approximately 10,000 and 6000 acres which included 10 and 8 cotton producers respectively and 6 pest control advisors. Due to producer interest and initiative in an adjoining production area, project acreage increased to over 18,000 acres and included 14 producers and 9 pest control advisors in 1997. The project cost of $3.00/acre was supported by participating producers with the monies used to hire University of Arizona trained students for field scouting of whiteflies. An economic development grant from the Electrical District #8 supported the project coordinator's salary who is a University of Arizona employee. Each field was sampled weekly for whitefly populations using recommended University of Arizona sampling procedure. The population data was then faxed to the responsible producer and pest control advisor on the date of sample. Treatment thresholds and chemistry class suggestions were made by Cooperative Extension with final control decisions and material choice at the producer and pest control advisor discretion. Weekly community wide meetings were conducted and used to discuss general area-wide and field specific population dynamics, treatment suggestions, crop condition, and agronomic and entomological area -wide production strategy recommendations.
    • Whitefly Management in Arizona: Conservation of Natural Enemies Relative to Insecticide Regime

      Naranjo, Steven E.; Hagler, James R.; Ellsworth, Peter C.; Silvertooth, Jeff; USDA-ARS, Western Cotton Research Laboratory, Phoenix, AZ; University of Arizona, Maricopa, AZ (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 1998-04)
      Field studies were conducted in 1997 to evaluate strategies for management of whitefly (Bemisia tabaci). We evaluated the effects of different insecticide regimes (conventional and insect growth regulators [IGR]) on the abundance of native parasitoids and predators associated with whitefly in Arizona cotton. Immature parasitoids were most abundant in untreated control plots and there was little difference among insecticide regimes. Percentage parasitism was low overall (< 30 %), but was highest in Knack plots and lowest in untreated control and Applaud plots. Predator populations were lowest in plots treated with conventional insecticides, and there were several instances where weekly or season -long populations of several predator species/groups were slightly depressed in IGR plots compared with the untreated check. Overall, results are encouraging and indicate that use of IGRs helps to conserve populations of native natural enemies.
    • Mathematical Models of Potassium Release Kinetics for Sonoran Desert Soils of Arizona

      Galadima, A.; Silvertooth, J. C.; Silvertooth, Jeff (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 1998-04)
      The objective of this study was to determine the potassium (K) release kinetics of clay samples from 10 agricultural representative soils of Arizona by successive extraction using Ca-saturated cation resin. A 1993 physical and chemical characterization of the soils revealed that all soils contain smectite-mica K bearing minerals. Four mathematical models (power function, Elovich, parabolic diffusion and first-order) were used to describe the nonexchangeable K release reaction involving 700-hr cumulative reaction time. Comparison of the models using the coefficient of determination (r²) and the standard error of the estimate (SE) indicated that the Elovich and the power function equations overall displayed the best fit. The first-order rate and for the most part, the parabolic diffusion equation did not describe the K release very well. The constants a and b for the Elovich and the power function equations, which represent the intercept and the release rate of the nonexchangeable K respectively, are at least in the order of magnitude as those found by others in several previous studies.
    • Side-dress Temik® Effects on Lint Yields

      Husman, Stephen H.; Silvertooth, Jeff (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 1998-04)
      Temik 15G was side-dressed at a rate of 7 lb./acre and 14 lb./acre and compared to an untreated check in 4 experiments in 1996 and 1997 in Buckeye, Az. Treatments were made just prior to early bloom. Lygus counts were taken using a sweep net on weekly intervals for four to six weeks post application. A net positive return on investment (ROI) ranging from $34.79/acre to $48.19/acre was realized in three of the four experiments with the seven lb./acre rate. One experiment resulted in a net economic loss of $24.84. A net positive ROI was experienced in two of the four experiments ranging from $23.31 to $50.11 using the fourteen lb./acre Temik rate. Two of the four experiments resulted in a net loss ranging from $28.28 to $93.27 using the fourteen lb./acre rate. It appears that lint yield increase responses are due in part to a plant response to Temik, not necessarily related to lygus density as evidenced in part by the lack of measured sweep count populations.
    • Potassium Fertilization of Upland and Pima Cotton (1991-1995, a five year project review)

      Galadima, A.; Silvertooth, J. C.; Norton, E. R.; Silvertooth, Jeff (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 1998-04)
      In an effort to provide information on the agronomic necessity of potassium (K) fertilization in Arizona cotton (Gossypium spp.) production, a five-year study was initiated in 1991 with a single field study located near Gila Bend. Subsequent study sites selected ranged from western (Yuma) to eastern (Safford) Arizona, which totaled 11 site years. Both Upland (G. hirsutum L.) and American Pima (G. barbadense L.) cotton were cultivated, using soil and foliar applications of K. In 1992, study sites included the Safford Ag. Center (SAC), Maricopa Ag. Center (MAC), and a Cooperator site at Coolidge. In 1993, the experiment stations sites were maintained (SAC and MAC) and Yuma Valley was added. The 1994 study sites included only the two experiment stations (SAC and MAC). In 1995, SAC and MAC were maintained, and a third location was a farmer cooperator site at Buckeye. The results from all studies (12) indicated no lint yield increases due to K fertilization at any of the locations with either Upland or Pima cotton. However, in 1995, at the Buckeye location, the result revealed a significant yield reduction due to the K foliar treatments. There were, however, no significant differences among soil as well as the soil-plus-foliar treated plots in the 1995 study at Buckeye.
    • Fungicide Treatment and Varietal Effects on Alternaria Leaf Spot of Pima Cotton

      Olsen, Mary W.; Clark, Lee; Moser, Hal; Silvertooth, Jeff (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 1998-04)
      The effect of foliar treatments for prevention of Alternaria leaf spot was evaluated in the field on six varieties of Pima cotton. Disease was significantly reduced by protective sprays of mancozeb and micronized sulfur but not by foliar applications of urea in trials at the University of Arizona Safford Agricultural Center in Safford, AZ. Treatments had no significant effects on yields. Significantly fewer lesions developed on Pima variety UA 4 than on the other varieties. Disease pressure was relatively light, and even though scheduled preventive sprays with mancozeb were effective, fungicide applications probably would not increase yields under the environmental conditions of this experiment.
    • Nitrogen Management Experiments for Upland and Pima Cotton, 1997

      Silvertooth, J. C.; Norton, E. R.; Silvertooth, Jeff (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 1998-04)
      Two field experiments were conducted in Arizona in 1997 at two locations (Maricopa and Marana). The Maricopa experiment has been conducted for eight consecutive seasons, the Marana site was initiated in 1994. The purposes of the experiments were to validate and refine nitrogen (N) fertilization recommendations for both Upland and Pima cotton. The experiments each utilized N management tools such as pre- season soil tests for NO₃⁻-N in- season plant tissue testing (petioles) for N fertility status, and crop monitoring to ascertain crop fruiting patterns and crop N needs. At each location, treatments varied from a conservative to a more aggressive approach of N management. Results at each location revealed a strong relationship between the crop fruit retention levels and N needs for the crop. This pattern was further reflected in final yield analysis as a response to the N fertilization regimes used. The higher, more aggressive, N application regimes did not benefit yields at any location.
    • Pima Cotton Regional Variety Trial, Safford Agricultural Center, 1997

      Clark, L. J.; Carpenter, E. W.; Hart, G. L.; Nelson, J. M.; Silvertooth, Jeff (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 1998-04)
      Sixteen long staple varieties were tested in a replicated small plot trial on the Safford Agricultural Center in Graham county at an elevation of 2950 feet. The highest yielding variety in 1997 was OA 325 with a yield of 746 pounds of lint per acre. It was followed by four other Olvey varieties yielding over 700 pounds per acre. 1997 was not a good Pima cotton year in this valley, weather problems early and insect problems late in the season both took their toll. Yields were more than 300 pounds lower than the previous year and 100 pounds less than in 1995. Yield and other agronomic data as well as fiber quality data are contained in this paper.
    • Evaluation of Irrigation Termination Affects on Upland Cotton, 1997

      Silvertooth, J. C.; Norton, E. R.; Silvertooth, Jeff (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 1998-04)
      A single field study was conducted in 1997 at the Maricopa Agricultural Center (1,175ft. elevation) to evaluate the effects of three dates of irrigation termination on the yield of a common Upland cotton variety (DP NuCOTN 33b). Planting date was 9 April (668 HU /Jan 1 86/55° F thresholds. Three dates of irrigation termination (IT1, IT2, and IT3) were imposed based upon crop development into cut -out. The earliest irrigation termination date, IT1 (7 August) was made as early as possible in an attempt to provide sufficient soil - water such that bolls set at the end of the first fruiting cycle would not be water stressed and could be fully matured. The second termination (IT2) date was 20 August, and provided one additional irrigation over IT1. The final (IT3) date was 17 September, which was staged so that soil moisture would be sufficient for development of bolls set up through the last week of September and provide full top-crop potential. Lint yield results revealed no differences among any of the IT treatments. Mirconaire values increased slightly with later IT dates.
    • Date of Planting by Long Staple and Short Staple Variety Trial, Safford Agricultural Center, 1997

      Clark, L. J.; Carpenter, E. W.; Silvertooth, Jeff (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 1998-04)
      Four varieties each of Long Staple and Short Staple cotton were tested over five and four dates of planting, respectively, in this study. The first date of planting for the Long Staple cotton was pushed up to the 18th of March because planting is now legal in Graham county as early as March 15th. The latest planting was May 13th. Cultivars of differing maturities were tested for both long and short staple cotton to determine their optimal planting time. Many agronomic and hvi values were evaluated to determine the effect of different planting dates
    • Arizona Upland Cotton Variety Testing Program, 1997

      Silvertooth, J.; Norton, R.; Clark, L.; Husman, S.; Knowles, T.; Gibson, R.; Silvertooth, Jeff; University of Arizona Cooperative Extension (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 1998-04)
      Eleven field experiments were conducted in major cotton growing areas of Arizona in 1997 for the purpose of evaluating Upland cotton varieties in terms of adaptability and performance. Six commercial cottonseed companies participated in the program. A maximum of two varieties were submitted by each company at each location. Experiments were conducted on a commercial level on grower-cooperator fields in most cases. Locations used in the program spanned the range of conditions common to cotton producing areas of the state from about 100 ft. to 4,000 ft. elevation. Results indicated a broad range of adaptability and competitiveness. Each of the participating seed companies offer a compliment of varieties that can serve to match various production strategies commonly employed in the state. Many varieties commercially available performed well at several locations demonstrating good adaptation to Arizona conditions.