• 1998 Cottonseed Variety and Fungicide Evaluation

      Knowles, Tim C.; Odom, Bruce; Wakimoto, Del; Silvertooth, Jeff (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 1999)
      Two upland cotton varieties (Deltapine 5415 and SureGrow 125) were subjected to various seed fungicide treatments to determine seedling emergence and vigor in a Mohave Valley field prone to Rhizoctonia infection of cotton seedlings. During 1998, cotton seedlings in this field exhibited symptoms associated with Rhizoctonia, Pythium, and Thielaviopsis fungi. Of the treatments examined in this study, Baytan+Thiram+Allegiance or Baytan+Ascend+Allegiance cotton seed treatments provided superior seedling disease protection. The Protégé+Allegiance fungicide treatment provided superior seedling disease protection when applied to Deltapine 5415 cotton seed, however seedling disease suppression was poor when the same treatment was applied to SureGrow 125. The Vitavax-PCNB+Allegiance and NuFlow M+Maxim+Apron were the least effective fungicide seed treatments examined in this study.
    • 1998 Seed Treatment Evaluations

      Norton, Eric C.; Silvertooth, Jeffrey C.; Silvertooth, Jeff (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 1999)
      Cottonseed was treated with several fungicide treatments in an effort to protect the seed and seedling from disease. Seed germination and vigor was evaluated in three Arizona locations; Maricopa, Marana, and Safford. Stand counts were taken after emergence at all three locations and percent emergence (PEM) was calculated. Significant differences in percent emergence due to seed treatments were observed in the both sample dates at Marana. Maricopa and Safford showed no statistically significant differences due treatment.
    • Integrated Morningglory Control Strategies: Transgenic Cotton and Precision Cultivation

      Knowles, Tim C.; McCloskey, Bill; Wakimoto, Vic; Silvertooth, Jeff (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 1999)
      A field demonstration was conducted in Mohave Valley to compare cotton morningglory control programs that combined the use of over the top herbicides Roundup Ultra on Roundup Ready cotton (Deltapine 436 RR) or Staple on non-transgenic cotton (SureGrow 125) with and without precision cultivation.
    • Systemic Insecticide Applications at Planting for Early Season Thrips Control

      Knowles, Tim C.; Bushong, Neil; Lloyd, Jim; Silvertooth, Jeff (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 1999)
      Temik 15G (6 lbs/acre) or Thimet 20G (8.2 lbs/acre) granular insecticides were applied to 40 inch rows in furrow at planting to cotton growing in Parker Valley, AZ. Moderate thrips pressure (0.5-1.5 thrips/plant) was experienced for the first eight weeks after planting and granular insecticide application. Temik provided better thrips control than Thimet for the first seven weeks after planting this study. Thrips control was similar for the two insecticides beyond eight weeks after planting. Temik application resulted in higher fruit retention levels measured up to 10 weeks after planting, compared to Thimet. However, fruit retention levels measured from 12 to 16 weeks after planting were similar for both Temik and Thimet when cotton plants compensated for early season square losses caused by thrips feeding.
    • EUP Evaluation of a Novel Insecticide for Lygus Control

      Ellsworth, Peter C.; Deeter, Brian; Whitlow, Mike; Silvertooth, Jeff; The University of Arizona, Department of Entomology & Maricopa Agricultural Center; Rhône-Poulenc Company, Fresno, CA; Arizona Cotton Research & Protection Council (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 1999)
      Lygus became the number one pest of cotton in 1998 with statewide losses of over $16 million in spite of individual costs to the grower of over $55/A for control. Selective technologies for whitefly and pink bollworm control reduce the number of broad spectrum sprays that incidentally control Lygus. Control of Lygus depends mainly on just two related chemical classes of insecticides, organophosphates and carbamates. Over reliance on such a limited diversity of chemical controls increases the risk of resistance. Further, FQPA threatens the future availability of many of our main stay chemical controls. The study reported here sought to investigate the commercial suitability of a new compound, Regent®, for the control of Lygus. This novel mode of action represents one of the few potential new tools under development for Lygus management. Under a federal Emergency Use Permit (EUP), Regent was tested against two standards of Lygus control (Orthene® and Vydate®) and an untreated check. In a test of unusually high Lygus densities, Regent provided excellent control of small (instars 1–3) and large (instars 4–5) Lygus nymphs and may provide marginally better control of adults than current standards. None of the tested agents provided quick control or knockdown of adults. Rather, adult levels were reduced over time, most likely as a result of prevention of the development of new adults via nymphal control. All three materials protected cotton producing yields significantly higher than the check. The Orthene treatment had the highest yield, though not significantly higher than the Regent treatment which was effectively sprayed one less time than the other compounds.
    • Evaluation of Chemical Controls of Lygus hesperus in Arizona

      Ellsworth, Peter C.; Silvertooth, Jeff; The University of Arizona, Department of Entomology & Maricopa Agricultural Center (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 1999)
      When other means fail to avoid damaging levels of an insect pest population, chemical control becomes necessary. Chemical control is a variable farm input which should be optimized to reduce economic damage by the pest while maximizing profit and minimizing exposure to secondary pest outbreaks, pest resurgence, and risks of insecticide resistance. To best balance these needs, a grower or PCA needs the best information possible for selecting and timing chemical controls. This study examines the array of Lygus chemical control options currently available as well as experimental compounds that may or may not be available in the future. While identifying the best chemical controls is the major objective of this study, insights into proper timing and duration of control are also discussed. In short, there are few, yet effective, Lygus insecticides available to growers currently. However, with proper rates and timing, significant yield protection can be achieved with Orthene® or Vydate®. To a lesser extent, Thiodan® (endosulfan) was also effective against Lygus, though higher rates than used in this study may be necessary to achieve acceptable control. The use of mixtures did not enhance control of Lygus over our two standards (Orthene or Vydate). Newer compounds were also studied; however, Mirids (plant bugs) are not worldwide targets for development by the agrochemical industry. Thus, most new compounds are effective on some other primary pest (e.g., whiteflies, boll weevil, thrips, aphids), and control of Lygus is merely a potential collateral benefit. Of these, the chloronicotinyls (e.g., Provado®, Actara®) were not practically effective against Lygus hesperus, in spite of their existing or pending labelling. Their labels are based on demonstrated efficacy against a related species present in cotton outside of the West (Lygus lineolaris). One compound shows excellent promise as a Lygus control agent, Regent® (fipronil). Under development by Rhône- Poulenc, this insecticide provides as good or better protection against Lygus than our best materials. In a system demanding multiple applications to control chronic Lygus populations, Regent could be key to the development of a sustainable use strategy that does not over rely on any single chemical class. None of the insecticides tested significantly controlled adult Lygus, except after repeated use and time. Even then, this effect was likely the result of generational control of the nymphal stage which thus produced fewer adults over time. Nymphal control was excellent for Orthene, Vydate, and Regent. Yields were up to five times higher in the best treatments relative to the untreated control. Other effects were also documented for the best treatments which have additional positive impact on grower profitability: shorter plants (better defoliation), higher lint turnouts, less gin trash, and a lower seed index.
    • Open Cotton Boll Exposure to Whiteflies and Development of Sticky Cotton

      Henneberry, Tom J.; Forlow Jech, L.; Hendrix, D. L.; Brushwood, D.; Steele, T.; Silvertooth, Jeff (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 1999)
      Trehalulose and melezitose produced by Bemisia argentifolii Bellows and Perring and thermodetector counts in cotton lint increased with increasing numbers of days of exposure of open cotton bolls in infested cotton plots. Thermodetector counts were significantly correlated to amounts of trehalulose and melezitose. Rainfall of 0.5 inch reduced trehalulose and melezitose in cotton lint within 5 h following the rain. The results suggest dissolution of the sugars followed by runoff as opposed to microbial degradation.
    • Mortality Factors Affecting Whitefly Populations in Arizona Cotton Management Systems: Life Table Analysis

      Naranjo, Steven E.; Ellsworth, Peter C.; Silvertooth, Jeff; USDA-ARS, Western Cotton Research Laboratory, Phoenix, AZ and 2University of Arizona, Maricopa, AZ (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 1999)
      Direct-observation studies were conducted in replicated experimental plots to identify causes and estimate rates of mortality of whiteflies in cotton over the course of six generations from late June through late October. In plots receiving no whitefly or Lygus insecticides, predation and dislodgment were major sources of egg and nymphal mortality, and overall survival from egg to adult ranged from 0-18.2%. Similar patterns were observed in plots treated with the insect growth regulator (IGR) Knack. Applications of the IGR Applaud or a mixture of endosulfan and Ovasyn caused high levels of small nymph mortality and reduced rates of predation on nymphs during the generation immediately following single applications of these materials in early August. Whitefly populations declined to very low levels by mid-August in all plots, and few differences were observed in patterns of whitefly mortality among treated and control plots 4-6 weeks after application. The population crash was associated with an unknown nymphal mortality factor which reduced immature survivorship during this first posttreatment generation to zero. The application of insecticides for control of Lygus in subplots modified patterns of mortality in all whitefly treatments by generally reducing mortality from predation during generations observed from mid-July through August. Parasitism was a very minor source of mortality throughout and was unaffected by whitefly or Lygus insecticides.
    • Monitoring Bemisia Susceptibility to Applaud (buprofezin) during the 1998 Cotton Season

      Ellsworth, Peter C.; Sieglaff, D. H.; Yazui, M.; Lublinkhof, J.; Silvertooth, Jeff; The University of Arizona, Department of Entomology & Maricopa Agricultural Center; Nihon Nohyaku, Ltd., Osaka, Japan; AgrEvo USA Co., Wilmington, DE (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 1999)
      Starting in 1993, we developed a field-based protocol for bioassaying sweetpotato whiteflies (SWF) for susceptibility to buprofezin (Applaud®). Since then, we have monitored Arizona SWF populations (up to 5 regions) for susceptibility to Applaud in four out of the last six seasons. We observed no appreciable decrease in susceptibility. Instead, we have observed an increase in susceptibility of present day whiteflies when compared to populations bioassayed in 1993 and 1996, before any Applaud use in the U.S.. This result, however, is likely related to various procedural changes in the bioassay methodology. Nevertheless, our current estimates of whitefly susceptibility are similar to those obtained from various unexposed populations from around the world and to populations we bioassayed in 1997. Differences between our LC50 estimates and those of some other researchers can probably be explained by various procedural differences: 1) method of Applaud application, 2) whitefly stage collected and sources of leaf foliage, and 3) bioassay environmental conditions. Our results also showed each year that Applaud susceptibility does not decline after Applaud application(s) based on commercial paired field comparisons and replicated small and large plot evaluations. In fact, susceptibilities actually marginally increased after an Applaud application. This fact does not alter the recommendation for Arizona to limit Applaud use to one time per crop season, but does provide hope for the development of a sustainable use pattern even if usage continues on non-cotton hosts (i.e., on melons and vegetables under Section 18). Given the tremendous value of this mode of action, however, commodity groups should work together wherever possible to coordinate the usage of this and other valuable compounds so that whitefly generations are not successively exposed to this product.
    • Whitefly Management with Insect Growth Regulators and the influence of Lygus Controls

      Ellsworth, Peter C.; Naranjo, Steve E.; Silvertooth, Jeff; The University of Arizona, Department of Entomology & Maricopa Agricultural Center; USDA-ARS, Western Cotton Research Laboratory, Phoenix, AZ (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 1999)
      The three keys to whitefly management are sampling, effective chemical use, and avoidance. This study examines factors relevant to the latter two keys in the context of Arizona’s cotton pest spectrum. Insect growth regulators (IGRs) are central to Arizona’s success in whitefly management. The basic usage guidelines developed for the IGRs—initial treatment timing, prescribed intervals between successive uses, and one use each seasonal limits—are all valuable in the development of a sustainable use pattern. Re-treatment timing guidelines for the second IGR has been the subject of investigation for the past two years. However, whitefly pressure in 1998 was strikingly different and lower than in any other post-introduction year. Re-treatment was unnecessary and thus could not be evaluated this year. Lygus, on the other hand, were at damaging levels early in plant development and for a protracted period. Future successes in whitefly management should consider the whole pest spectrum and depend on integrating chemical controls for all sprayed pests. While our primary focus is to optimize management of whiteflies in the context of other pests, this study examined the impact of Lygus controls on whitefly population dynamics and cotton production. Three sprays were required to control Lygus populations in this study. These sprays were atypically non-disruptive to whitefly population dynamics, and instead, helped to suppress low-level populations of whiteflies even further. This lack of disruption may have been due in part to the reduced abundance and role of natural enemies in this study. Lygus sprays did protect yields with a 3-fold advantage over untreated plots. Furthermore, there were a series of negative consequences of poor Lygus control. Plants tended to be more vegetative and more difficult to defoliate. Lower lint turnouts were documented for the Lygus-untreated areas. Sources of this additional loss were identified and included increased gin trash and larger seed size in Lygus-untreated areas. The lint also had significantly more sticking points as measured by manual thermodetector. While all cotton was determined to be non-sticky, this increased contamination may have been also related to the higher trash levels. Because of the differences in outcome in 1997 and 1998 in terms of Lygus spray effects on whiteflies, it is even more imperative that we further test whitefly management systems under near commercial conditions. A better understanding of the relationship between the control programs for these two major pests will help guide decisions on remedial inputs. This study also serves as an annual, replicated, and systematic accounting of whitefly population dynamics and control requirements useful for making historical comparisons across years. Inferences may be drawn about what are and are not the underlying causes of the unusual population dynamics observed in 1998.
    • Evaluation of a Foliar Applied Seed Bed Calcium Soil Conditioner in in Irrigated Cotton Production System

      Griffin, J. R.; Silvertooth, Jeffrey C.; Silvertooth, Jeff (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 1999)
      A multi-site experiment was conducted at Paloma Ranch, west of Gila Bend in Maricopa County and at Wellton in Yuma County Arizona. NuCotn 33B was dry planted and watered-up on 28 April 1998. Various rates of application of nitrogen (N) and calcium (Ca) from CN-9 [9-0-0-11Ca (5Ca(NO₃)₂•NH₄NO₃•10H₂O)] was used to evaluate the check. The CN-9 was applied as a foliar application directly to the seed bed on 27 April 1998. Treatment 1 was the check plot that received no CN-9. Treatment 2 received a 12 gal./acre application of CN-9 while treatment 3 received a 15 gal./acre application of CN-9. Each gal of CN-9 weighs approx. 12.2 lbs. and contains 1.1 lbs. of N and 1.4 lbs. of Ca. Treatment 2 received a total of 13 N/acre while treatment 3 received a total of 17 N/acre via CN-9. Treatment 1 received only farm standard applications of UAN-32. Treatments 2 and 3 each received farm standard applications of UAN-32 after the application of CN-9 for continued crop N needs. A total of 17 lbs./acre of Ca was applied to treatment 2 and 21 lbs./acre of Ca was applied to treatment 3. No significant differences were found among the various treatments in terms of plant growth, soil water content, ECₑ values, and sodium absorption ratios. Lint yields were not significantly different (P<0.05).
    • Evaluation of an Acid Soil Conditioner in an Irrigated Cotton Production System

      Griffin, J. R.; Silvertooth, Jeffrey C.; Silvertooth, Jeff (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 1999)
      A single field study was conducted on a sodium-affected soil at the University of Arizona’s Maricopa Agricultural Center (MAC) in 1998. NuCotn 33B was dry planted and watered-up on 5 May 1998. Two treatments were evaluated; treatment 1 received no acid and treatment 2 received water-run acid applications. The acid used in this evaluation was sulfuric acid (H₂SO₄). The acid was applied at approximately 11 gallons acid/acre at each scheduled irrigation throughout the entire growing season. All other agronomic inputs and decisions were uniformly applied to both treatments in the same manner throughout the season. The experiment was arranged in a randomized complete block design with two treatments and six replications. Significant differences were found among the two treatments in terms of plant growth and soil water content (P<0.05). Lint yields were significantly different (P=0.0013) with the check having the highest yield.
    • Preplant Micronutrient Fertilizers for Cotton

      Knowles, Tim C.; Artz, Paul; Sherrill, Chip; Silvertooth, Jeff (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 1999)
      Micronutrient fertilizers including zinc, boron, copper, and manganese in their sulfate forms were broadcast applied and incorporated preplant to determine their effects on lint yield of upland cotton.
    • Late Season Pink Bollworm Pressure in the Top Crop of Bt and Non-Bt Cotton

      Knowles, Tim C.; Dennehy, Tim J.; Rovey, Albert; Silvertooth, Jeff (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 1999)
      Green bolls (100/field) were sampled from the uppermost internodes within adjacent fields of Bt (Deltapine 33B) and non-Bt refuge (Hyperformer HS 44 or Deltapine 20) experiencing severe pink bollworm pressure late in the growing season. Evidence of 3rd instar or larger pink bollworm larvae survival was higher in susceptible bolls sampled from transgenic Bt cotton late in the 1998 growing season, compared to that observed late in the 1997 growing season.
    • Fertility Management and Calibration Evaluations on Upland and Pima Cotton

      Thelander, A. S.; Silvertooth, Jeffrey C.; Silvertooth, Jeff (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 1999)
      Various field experiments were conducted during the 1997 and 1998 cotton season involving macro and micronutrient fertilization. A total of six experiments were conducted at various locations in Arizona. Each of the field experiments studied the effects of different nutrients and nutrient combinations on both Upland and Pima varieties. The purpose of these experiments were to evaluate University of Arizona fertility guidelines with respect to soil test results and to possibly fine-tune or calibrate these guidelines for common Arizona soils and cotton growing regimes. Results from these experiments based on soil test information, quantitative plant measurements, and lint yield showed no significant difference due to treatments for all the studies except for a phosphorus study conducted in Graham County.
    • Cotton Fertility Study, Safford Agricultural Center, 1998

      Clark, Lee J.; Carpenter, E. W.; Silvertooth, Jeff (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 1999)
      Three different nitrogen fertilizer regimes were practiced in this study along with an unfertilized check. The same amount of nitrogen fertilizer was sidedressed in the plots in one, two or three applications. No significant differences were seen, but the trends looked like the split applications might have had some advantage.
    • Short Staple Variety Trial, Greenlee County, 1998

      Clark, Lee J.; Silvertooth, Jeff (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 1999)
      Six short staple cotton varieties including two New Mexico acalas varieties and one advanced strain, an Australian varieties and two SureGrow varieties with higher yield potential were tested in this study. New Mexico Acala 1517-95 had the highest lint yield with a yield of 419 pounds of lint per acre. The average yield was about 400 pounds per acre lower than the 6 year average due to a cold spring and a four inch rain that fell in one hour in the middle of July. In addition to lint yields; percent lint, plant heights, plant populations and lint hvi values are shown. A lint yield comparison for 1993 through 1998 is included in this paper.
    • Short Staple Variety Trials in Cochise County, 1998

      Clark, Lee J.; Silvertooth, Jeff (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 1999)
      Variety trials were grown at two locations and with two different sets of short staple varieties. One trial on the Robbs farm, north of Kansas Settlement, tested two acala varieties and the most promising advanced strain from New Mexico, two short seasoned varieties from SureGrow and one Australia variety. The other trial on the Glenn Schmidt farm, in Kansas Settlement, tested seventeen upland varieties as part of the statewide testing program. The highest yielding variety in the Robbs trial was SG 404 with SG 125 coming in second. In the Schmidt trial, FM 989, an Australian variety that has performed well in Safford, had the highest yield, just over 2 bales per acre.
    • Preliminary Evaluation of the "Next Generation" of Bt Cotton

      Sieglaff, D. H.; Ellsworth, Peter C.; Silvertooth, Jeffrey C.; Hamilton, E.; Silvertooth, Jeff; The University of Arizona, Department of Entomology & Maricopa Agricultural Center; Department of Plant Sciences; Monsanto Company, Chesterfield, MO (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 1999)
      The next generation of Bollgard® cotton was evaluated for agronomic and insecticidal efficacy under central Arizona growing conditions. Two novel lines were compared with their recurrent parents, DP50 and DP50B. There were no seasonlong differences observed among the varieties in most plant development and insect parameters. However, DP50 had significantly lower emergence than the other lines tested (possibly related to seed quality). The lower plant population may have been responsible for greater whitefly abundance observed on two dates mid-season. During early-season ratings of secondary “pests” (15 DAP) (scaled on damage and/or presence), the two test lines received lower ratings for thrips and flea beetle when compared with DP50, DP50B and DP50Bu (untreated for Lepidoptera). However, these difference are likely as a result of the difference in seed treatments that the two test lines received (Gaucho®) and the others did not. This seed treatment does have known activity against thrips and beetle pests. In mid-season, the two test lines received lower ratings for beet armyworm when compared to DP50, DP50B and DP50Bu (although, not significantly different from DP50B or DP50Bu). Efficacy against pink bollworm (PBW) was assessed one time at the end of the season (we were limited to this time, so as to not affect yield), and DP50 was the only variety in which PBW exit holes were observed and PBW larvae collected. However, the low Lepidoptera pressure experienced during the season limited assessments of the two novel lines’ efficacy toward PBW. There was no significant difference in yield (bale/A) among the varieties. Although, one of the test lines had a lower lint turnout than each other variety. The two novel Bollgard lines performed well under our growing conditions, but continued evaluations will be necessary under more conditions and more insect pressures before “varietal” performance and gene efficacy can be assessed adequately.
    • Short Staple Variety Trials, Graham County, 1998

      Clark, Lee J.; Carpenter, E. W.; Walser, R. H.; Silvertooth, Jeff (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 1999)
      Two replicated on-farm short staple variety trials were planted in 1998. Fifteen varieties were evaluated on both the Carpenter farm in Thatcher and the Colvin farm near Ft. Thomas. Several new varieties were planted in both studies, including 4 transgenic varieties: DP 90B, BXN 47, DP 90RR and Paymaster 1560BG, 2 varieties from Australia: FiberMax 989 and FiberMax 832, and seven other varieties seen for the first time. Two of the new varieties produced the highest yields; AgriPro 6101 and Phytogen 952 on the Carpenter and Colvin farms, respectively. Other agronomic data from the varieties and HVI values from the lint are also included in this report.