• Pima Regional Variety Test at the Maricopa Agricultural Center, 1998

      Hart, G. L.; Nelson, J. M.; Clark, Lee J.; Silvertooth, Jeff (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 1999)
      Seventeen Pima varieties were grown in a replicated trial at the Maricopa Agricultural Center as part of the national cotton variety testing program. Lint yield, boll size, lint percent, plant populations, plant heights and fiber properties are presented in this report.
    • Development of a Yield Projection Technique for Arizona Cotton

      Norton, Eric R.; Silvertooth, Jeffrey C.; Silvertooth, Jeff (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 1999)
      A series of boll measurements were taken at numerous locations in cotton producing areas across Arizona in 1998 in an attempt to continue to develop a yield prediction model with a project that began in 1993. Results from 1995 showed the strongest relationship between final open boll counts and yield compared to a number of other measurements. Based on these results, data collection on boll counts began in 1996 and has continued in 1997 and 1998. Boll counts were taken as the number of harvestable bolls meter-1. All boll count measurements were made within one week of harvest. Number of bolls per unit area were then correlated to lint yield and an estimate for the number of bolls per area needed to produce a bale of lint was calculated. Estimates using all three years data combined indicate that approximately 38 bolls meter-1 are needed to produce one bale of lint per acre.
    • Evaluation of a Feedback Approach to Nitrogen and Pix Applications, 1998

      Norton, E. J.; Silvertooth, Jeffrey C.; Norton, Eric R.; Silvertooth, Jeff (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 1999)
      A single field experiment was conducted in 1998 at Marana, AZ to evaluate a scheduled (based upon stage of growth) versus a feedback approach (based upon growth parameters and crop conditions) to nitrogen (N) and mepiquat chloride (PixTM) applications on upland cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.). The parameters used in evaluating feedback applications for both N and Pix included fruit retention (FR) levels and height to node ratios (HNRs) with respect to established baselines for cotton grown in the desert Southwest. Scheduled and feedback Pix applications were made for a total of 1.5 and 2.5 pint Pix/acre, respectively, with the feedback treatments receiving a late season application at approximately 3100 heat units after planting (HUAP 86/550 F threshold). Scheduled Pix treatments received a single 1.5 pint Pix/acre application prior to peak bloom (approximately 2000 HUAP). Scheduled applications of fertilizer N totaled 205 lbs. N/acre from three applications. Feedback applications of N received a total of 100 lbs. N/acre from two applications. Treatments consisted of all combinations of feedback and scheduled applications of both N and Pix. The highest lint yields occurred in the treatment consisting of Pix feedback and N feedback (treatment two), however, there were no significant differences (P≥0.05) among any of the treatments with respect to yield.
    • Marana Pima Test

      Hart, G. L.; Nelson, J. M.; Barney, Glen; Silvertooth, Jeff (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 1999)
      Seventeen pima cotton varieties were grown at the Marana Agricultural Center as part of the national cotton variety testing program. Lint yield, boll size, lint percent and fiber properites are presented in this report.
    • Agronomic Comparison of Transgenic Varieties with their Parent Lines, Safford Agricultural Center, 1998

      Clark, Lee J.; Carpenter, E. W.; Silvertooth, Jeff (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 1999)
      As more transgenic varieties become available, grower=s interests intensify and more information is needed to satisfy the inquiries. Agronomic comparisons of six lines (transgenic varieties and their recurrent parents) from three companies are represented in this high desert study. Results show some subtle differences between the transgenic lines and their recurrent parents. Under the high Pink Bollworm pressure observed in the trial, yield increases were uniformly seen when the Bt gene was present, even though all plots were sprayed to control insect pests. Yields tended to be lower when herbicide resistence was introduced into the plants (even though not statistically significant), except when placed in a stacked array. Several agronomic values and HVI lint quality values are reported in this report.
    • Late Season Nitrogen Fertilizer for Cotton

      Knowles, Tim C.; Watson, Jack; Wakimoto, Vic; Silvertooth, Jeff (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 1999)
      Field experiments were conducted during the 1996 and 1997 growing seasons in Mohave Valley to determine the effect of late season nitrogen (N) fertilizer applications on top crop yield potential of upland cotton. A long season production system utilizing late season nitrogen (N) applications through peak bloom (August) was compared to a short season production system in which N was applied through mid-bloom (June). Mid-season N applications were based on UA guidelines utilizing plant mapping and petiole nitrate data for the short season production system.
    • Monitoring Bemisia Susceptibility to Applaud (buprofezin) during the 1998 Cotton Season

      Ellsworth, Peter C.; Sieglaff, D. H.; Yazui, M.; Lublinkhof, J.; Silvertooth, Jeff; The University of Arizona, Department of Entomology & Maricopa Agricultural Center; Nihon Nohyaku, Ltd., Osaka, Japan; AgrEvo USA Co., Wilmington, DE (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 1999)
      Starting in 1993, we developed a field-based protocol for bioassaying sweetpotato whiteflies (SWF) for susceptibility to buprofezin (Applaud®). Since then, we have monitored Arizona SWF populations (up to 5 regions) for susceptibility to Applaud in four out of the last six seasons. We observed no appreciable decrease in susceptibility. Instead, we have observed an increase in susceptibility of present day whiteflies when compared to populations bioassayed in 1993 and 1996, before any Applaud use in the U.S.. This result, however, is likely related to various procedural changes in the bioassay methodology. Nevertheless, our current estimates of whitefly susceptibility are similar to those obtained from various unexposed populations from around the world and to populations we bioassayed in 1997. Differences between our LC50 estimates and those of some other researchers can probably be explained by various procedural differences: 1) method of Applaud application, 2) whitefly stage collected and sources of leaf foliage, and 3) bioassay environmental conditions. Our results also showed each year that Applaud susceptibility does not decline after Applaud application(s) based on commercial paired field comparisons and replicated small and large plot evaluations. In fact, susceptibilities actually marginally increased after an Applaud application. This fact does not alter the recommendation for Arizona to limit Applaud use to one time per crop season, but does provide hope for the development of a sustainable use pattern even if usage continues on non-cotton hosts (i.e., on melons and vegetables under Section 18). Given the tremendous value of this mode of action, however, commodity groups should work together wherever possible to coordinate the usage of this and other valuable compounds so that whitefly generations are not successively exposed to this product.
    • Evaluation of the Effects Added Nitrogen Interaction on Nitrogen Recovery Efficiency Calculations

      Norton, Eric R.; Silvertooth, Jeffrey C.; Silvertooth, Jeff (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 1999)
      Two studies were conducted in 1996 and 1997 at the University of Arizona Maricopa Agricultural Center (MAC) to evaluate the added nitrogen interaction (ANI) or ‘priming effect’ on the determination of nitrogen recovery efficiencies (NRE). The method employed was to compare NRE’s as calculated by two different methods; the difference technique and the isotopic technique. The difference in NREs observed between the two methods indicates the extent of an ANI. Results demonstrated no statistical differences between NRE’s calculated by the two methods. Therefore, no ANI was observed in the field. These results indicate that the less expensive method of calculating NREs (difference technique) is sufficient under irrigated cotton production systems in the desert Southwest.
    • Fertility Management and Calibration Evaluations on Upland and Pima Cotton

      Thelander, A. S.; Silvertooth, Jeffrey C.; Silvertooth, Jeff (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 1999)
      Various field experiments were conducted during the 1997 and 1998 cotton season involving macro and micronutrient fertilization. A total of six experiments were conducted at various locations in Arizona. Each of the field experiments studied the effects of different nutrients and nutrient combinations on both Upland and Pima varieties. The purpose of these experiments were to evaluate University of Arizona fertility guidelines with respect to soil test results and to possibly fine-tune or calibrate these guidelines for common Arizona soils and cotton growing regimes. Results from these experiments based on soil test information, quantitative plant measurements, and lint yield showed no significant difference due to treatments for all the studies except for a phosphorus study conducted in Graham County.
    • 1998 Demonstration Project of Arizona Irrigated Cotton Production

      Dittmar, Stefan H.; Ellsworth, Peter C.; Hartman, Philip MacD; Martin, Edward C.; McCloskey, William B.; Olsen, Mary W.; Roth, Robert L.; Silvertooth, Jeffrey C.; Tronstad, Russell E.; Silvertooth, Jeff (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 1999)
      The Demonstration project was conducted on the Demonstration Farm at the Maricopa Agricultural Center. In this project all current guidelines and recommendations disseminated by the University of Arizona were integrated in a systems approach. The management decisions were made by the Extension Specialists in agronomy, entomology, irrigation management, weed sciences, and plant pathology following the University recommendations. On a 50.5 acre field 80% Bt and 20% non-Bt cotton was planted dry and watered up. Due to the cold spring and sand-blasting, only a stand of 30,900 plants/A could be established with 84% terminal damage. 72 acreinches of water were used with 41.3 acre-inches in postplant irrigations. Weed control could be achieved with one preplant application and three cultivations. Three sprays against Lygus and one spray against whiteflies were necessary after the thresholds were exceeded. A total of 4120 lb seedcotton per acre were harvested, with 32.7% lint turnout (2.81 bales/A) and 45.9% seed turnout (1891 lb/A). After harvesting a field budget was established. The variable costs per acre were $915, the total cost $1266/acre. In spite of the lack of replications this project validates the usefulness and compatibility of University recommendations and the potential for integration of all disciplinary guidelines in one system.
    • Agronomic Evaluations of Transgenic Cotton Varieties, 1998

      Silvertooth, Jeffrey C.; Norton, Eric R.; Silvertooth, Jeff; University of Arizona (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 1999)
      Several field experiments were conducted in many of the cotton growing areas of Arizona in 1998 for the purpose of evaluating agronomic characteristics of many new transgenic Upland cotton varieties. In many cases, the new transgenic lines were compared directly with their recurrent (nontransgenic) parents. Evaluations were carried out by collecting plant mapping data from each variety on a regular 14 day interval throughout the season and relating the resultant information to established baselines for Upland cotton in Arizona. Lint yield measurements were also taken on each variety at all locations. Results indicate that all transgenic lines tested are very similar to their recurrent parents in terms of growth, development, and yield. Some subtle differences were noted but they were very slight and should not impact management of the varieties significantly in comparison to their recurrent parents.
    • Upland Regional Cotton Variety Test at the Maricopa Agricultural Center, 1998

      Hart, G. L.; Nelson, J. M.; Clark, Lee J.; Silvertooth, Jeff (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 1999)
      Thirty six upland cotton varieties were grown at the Maricopa Agricultural Center as part of the national cotton variety testing program. Lint yield, boll size, lint percent, plant populations, plant heights and fiber properties are presented in this paper.
    • Systemic Insecticide Applications at Planting for Early Season Thrips Control

      Knowles, Tim C.; Bushong, Neil; Lloyd, Jim; Silvertooth, Jeff (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 1999)
      Temik 15G (6 lbs/acre) or Thimet 20G (8.2 lbs/acre) granular insecticides were applied to 40 inch rows in furrow at planting to cotton growing in Parker Valley, AZ. Moderate thrips pressure (0.5-1.5 thrips/plant) was experienced for the first eight weeks after planting and granular insecticide application. Temik provided better thrips control than Thimet for the first seven weeks after planting this study. Thrips control was similar for the two insecticides beyond eight weeks after planting. Temik application resulted in higher fruit retention levels measured up to 10 weeks after planting, compared to Thimet. However, fruit retention levels measured from 12 to 16 weeks after planting were similar for both Temik and Thimet when cotton plants compensated for early season square losses caused by thrips feeding.
    • Defoliation Tests with Ginstar at the Maricopa Agricultural Center in 1998

      Nelson, J. M.; Silvertooth, Jeff (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 1999)
      Defoliation tests were conducted on upland and Pima cotton at the Maricopa Agricultural Center to evaluate the use of low rates of Ginstar for preconditioning cotton, several rates of Ginstar and tank mixes of Ginstar and Def. The upland cotton used in this test was generally difficult to defoliate, probably because of cool night temperatures. One application of Ginstar + Def gave acceptable defoliation of upland cotton 14 days after treatment (DAT) and this treatment was as good as using Ginstar as a preconditioner followed by Ginstar (2 applications of defoliant). For Pima cotton, most Ginstar treatments gave acceptable defoliation 7 DAT. Although defoliation treatments caused some leaf desiccation, it was not a serious problem in these tests. All defoliation treatments resulted in excellent control of terminal regrowth for both upland and Pima cotton.
    • Short Staple Variety Trials in Cochise County, 1998

      Clark, Lee J.; Silvertooth, Jeff (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 1999)
      Variety trials were grown at two locations and with two different sets of short staple varieties. One trial on the Robbs farm, north of Kansas Settlement, tested two acala varieties and the most promising advanced strain from New Mexico, two short seasoned varieties from SureGrow and one Australia variety. The other trial on the Glenn Schmidt farm, in Kansas Settlement, tested seventeen upland varieties as part of the statewide testing program. The highest yielding variety in the Robbs trial was SG 404 with SG 125 coming in second. In the Schmidt trial, FM 989, an Australian variety that has performed well in Safford, had the highest yield, just over 2 bales per acre.
    • EUP Evaluation of a Novel Insecticide for Lygus Control

      Ellsworth, Peter C.; Deeter, Brian; Whitlow, Mike; Silvertooth, Jeff; The University of Arizona, Department of Entomology & Maricopa Agricultural Center; Rhône-Poulenc Company, Fresno, CA; Arizona Cotton Research & Protection Council (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 1999)
      Lygus became the number one pest of cotton in 1998 with statewide losses of over $16 million in spite of individual costs to the grower of over $55/A for control. Selective technologies for whitefly and pink bollworm control reduce the number of broad spectrum sprays that incidentally control Lygus. Control of Lygus depends mainly on just two related chemical classes of insecticides, organophosphates and carbamates. Over reliance on such a limited diversity of chemical controls increases the risk of resistance. Further, FQPA threatens the future availability of many of our main stay chemical controls. The study reported here sought to investigate the commercial suitability of a new compound, Regent®, for the control of Lygus. This novel mode of action represents one of the few potential new tools under development for Lygus management. Under a federal Emergency Use Permit (EUP), Regent was tested against two standards of Lygus control (Orthene® and Vydate®) and an untreated check. In a test of unusually high Lygus densities, Regent provided excellent control of small (instars 1–3) and large (instars 4–5) Lygus nymphs and may provide marginally better control of adults than current standards. None of the tested agents provided quick control or knockdown of adults. Rather, adult levels were reduced over time, most likely as a result of prevention of the development of new adults via nymphal control. All three materials protected cotton producing yields significantly higher than the check. The Orthene treatment had the highest yield, though not significantly higher than the Regent treatment which was effectively sprayed one less time than the other compounds.
    • Date of Planting by Long Staple and Short Staple Variety Trial, Safford Agricultural Center, 1998

      Clark, Lee J.; Carpenter, E. W.; Silvertooth, Jeff (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 1999)
      Four varieties each of Long Staple and Short Staple cotton were tested over four dates of planting in this study. The first date of planting for the Long Staple cotton was delayed to the 3rd of April because of poor weather earlier. The latest planting was May 13th. Cultivars of differing maturities were tested for both long and short staple cotton to determine their optimal planting time. Many agronomic and hvi values were evaluated to determine the effect of different planting dates.
    • Narrow Row Cotton Production in Vicksberg

      Knowles, Tim C.; Cramer, Roc; Silvertooth, Jeff (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 1999)
      Deltapine 458B/RR, Deltapine 5415RR, Deltapine 20B, and Deltapine 20 cotton varieties were planted on June 5 into narrow 15 inch wide rows. Populations ranged from 80,000 to 100,000 plants per acre. Seed cotton was stripper harvested on December 17. Although lint yields were somewhat low (1- 2 bale/acre) for this late planted cotton, we learned several important practices for effective narrow row cotton production systems, based on our first years experience in western Arizona.
    • Upland Cotton Lint Yield Response to Several Soil Moisture Depletion Levels

      Husman, Stephen H.; Johnson, K.; Wegener, R.; Silvertooth, Jeff (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 1999)
      Upland cotton lint yield response to several soil moisture depletion levels was measured in 1997 and 1998. In 1997, four Upland cotton varieties including DP 5415, DP 33B, DP 5816, and STV 474 were tested. However because of a nonsignificant variety difference in the 1997 test, the 1998 test was planted to a single variety (DP 33B). In 1997 and 1998, depletion of plant available soil water (PAW) irrigation treatments consisted of 35%, 50%, 65%, and 80%. In 1997, all PAW depletion treatments were significantly different with the 35% PAW treatment resulting in the highest average lint yield of 1880 lbs. lint/acre. The 50%, 65%, and 80% PAW treatments resulted in 1410, 1123, and 248 lbs. lint/acre respectively. There was no significant (P<0.05) difference between varieties within all PAW treatments in 1997. In 1998, all PAW depletion treatments again were significantly different with the 35% PAW treatment resulting in the highest average lint yield of 1658 lbs. lint/acre. The 50%, 65%, and 80% PAW treatments resulted in 1534, 1396, and 641 lbs. lint/acre respectively.
    • Cotton Fertility Study, Safford Agricultural Center, 1998

      Clark, Lee J.; Carpenter, E. W.; Silvertooth, Jeff (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 1999)
      Three different nitrogen fertilizer regimes were practiced in this study along with an unfertilized check. The same amount of nitrogen fertilizer was sidedressed in the plots in one, two or three applications. No significant differences were seen, but the trends looked like the split applications might have had some advantage.