• Cotton Defoliation Evaluations, 1999

      Silvertooth, J. C.; Norton, E. R.; Silvertooth, Jeff (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 2000)
      Two field experiments were conducted near Marana and Coolidge, AZ in 1999 to evaluate the effectiveness of a number of defoliation treatments on Upland (var. DP 33b and AP 6101) cotton. All treatments consisted of materials commercially available in Arizona. Results reinforce general recommendations regarding the use of low rates (relative to the label ranges) under warm weather conditions and increasing rates as temperatures cool. Defoliation treatments of Ginstar alone did a satisfactory job of defoliation and regrowth/topgrowth contol and were very similar to treatments including Prep or Integrate. Adding Prep or Integrate to Ginstar in this experiment did not improve defoliation or topgrowth control.
    • Soil Test Calibration Evaluations for Phosphorus on Upland and Pima Cotton

      Thelander, A. S.; Silvertooth, J. C.; Silvertooth, Jeff (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 2000)
      Numerous field experiments were conducted at a wide range of sites in Arizona from 1988 through 1999 involving phosphate (P) fertilization of cotton (Gossypium spp.). A total of 21 site-years were used to study the effects of P on both Upland (G. hirsutum L.) and Pima (G. barbadense L.) varieties. The purpose of these experiments was to evaluate University of Arizona (UA) soil fertility guidelines with respect to soil test results (NaHCO3 extractable P) and to possibly fine-tune or calibrate these guidelines in relation to soil test P, applied P, and yield for common Arizona soils used in cotton production. Results from these experiments, based on soil test information, plant measurements, and lint yield showed no significant difference (P 0.05) due to treatments for all the studies with the exception of one P study conducted in Graham County in 1998 and another P study conducted in Pinal County in 1999. The 1998 Graham County site had a preseason soil test value of 7.6 ppm NaHCO₃ extractable P. The 1999 Pinal County site had a preseason soil test value of 3.0 ppm NaHCO3 extractable P. Analysis of yield results vs. soil P show that soil test P levels greater than 5 ppm are consistently sufficient for both Upland and Pima cotton. Yield results vs. applied P (lbs. P₂O₅/acre) for both Upland and Pima did not indicate a positive response over the rates of fertilization tested (20-160 lbs. P₂O₅/acre). Based on the results from these studies, the current UA soil fertility guidelines for P fertilization of cotton appear to be valid. Furthermore, the data indicates that the UA soil fertility guidelines may be further refined to provide the following categories: < 5 ppm = high probability of response to an added P fertilization; 6-10 ppm = medium probability of response to an added P fertilization; and > 10 ppm = low probability of response to an added P fertilization.
    • Lygus Control Decision Aids for Arizona Cotton

      Ellsworth, Peter C.; Silvertooth, Jeff; The University of Arizona, Department of Entomology & Maricopa Agricultural Center (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 2000)
      Changes in insecticide use, available pest control technologies, and local crop ecology together with severely depressed cotton prices place a renewed premium on Lygus control decision aids for Arizona cotton. As part of an on-going program to develop research-based Lygus management recommendations, we investigated the impact of various timings of chemical controls on Lygus population dynamics, number of sprays, costs of control, and net revenue as well as cotton heights, trash, lint turnouts, and yields. Once there were at least 15 total Lygus per 100 sweeps, sprays were made according to the number of nymphs in the sample (0, 1, 4, 8 or 16 per 100 sweeps). Up to 7 sprays were required (15/0 regime) to meet the needs of the target threshold. Lygus adult densities were largely unresponsive to the treatment regimes or individual sprays made. Three generations of nymphs, however, were affected by the treatments with the ‘15/4’ regime harboring the fewest nymphs through July. This ‘moderate’ regime required 4 sprays and had the shortest plants, cleanest harvest, and highest lint turnouts. In addition, this regime out-yielded all other treatment regimes including the 6- (15/ 1) and 7- (15/0) spray regimes. Regression analyses of the data suggest that adult Lygus are less related to yield loss than nymphs and that large nymphs are best correlated with yield loss. Thus, spraying based on adults only would appear illadvised. Returns were highest ($747/A) for the 15/4 regime with over $100 more than the more protective regimes. Thus, there is no economic advantage in advancing chemical control when nymph levels are low. Maximum economic gain was achieved by waiting for the 4 nymphs per 100 level (with 15 total Lygus/100; 15/4) before spraying. However, waiting too long (beyond the 8 nymphs / 100 level; 15/8) resulted in significant reductions in yield and revenue. Our recommendations, therefore, are to apply insecticides against Lygus when there are at least 15 total Lygus, including at least 4 nymphs, per 100 sweeps. These recommendations are stable over a wide variety of economic conditions (market prices & insecticide costs). Continued work is necessary to verify these findings over a wider range of cotton developmental stages, varieties, and other environmental conditions.
    • Cotton Fertility Study, Safford Agricultural Center, 1999

      Clark, L. J.; Carpenter, E. W.; Silvertooth, Jeff (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 2000)
      Three different nitrogen fertilizer regimes were practiced in this study along with an unfertilized check. The same amount of nitrogen fertilizer was sidedressed in the plots in one, two or three applications. No statistically significant differences were seen between lint yields in this study nor in the previous study, but the yield trends were very similar. Applying the fertilizer nitrogen in two equal portions at the onset of rapid vegetative growth and just before peak bloom appeared to produce the best lint yield.
    • Influence of Ironite and Phosphorus on Long and Short Cotton on the Safford Agricultural Center, 1999

      Clark, L. J.; Carpenter, E. W.; Silvertooth, Jeff (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 2000)
      Ironite and phosphorus were applied to plots planted to long and short staple cotton to find their effect on crop development and lint yield. The soil analysis indicated sufficient iron and phosphorous in the soil for cotton production and that yield increases from additions of these elements were unlikely. No statistically significant increases in lint yield were seen with the addition of Ironite nor phosphorous fertilizer. However, an interesting yield trend with ironite was seen in long staple cotton.
    • Effects of High Frequency Irrigation on Irrigation Uniformity II

      Martin, E. C.; Wegge, R.; Sheedy, M.; Silvertooth, Jeff; University of Arizona, Cooperative Extension (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 2000)
      Another year of data was collected to determine the effects of high frequency irrigation on irrigation uniformity in cotton production. A field located at the Marana Agricultural Center was split into two treatments. Treatment one was irrigated at approximately 35% depletion of available water in the plant rootzone. Treatment two was irrigated at approximately 65% depletion in the crop rootzone. Increased frequency of irrigation has shown improved yields in many cotton studies. However, these more frequent and lighter irrigation applications may cause problems with irrigation uniformity. Frequent rains during critical time periods made it difficult to ascertain the impact of the irrigation schedule on uniformity. However, the less frequent, heavier application rate did result in a more uniform irrigation.
    • Agronomic and Economic Evaluation of Ultra Narrow Row Cotton Production in Arizona in 1999

      Husman, S. H.; McCloskey, W. B.; Teegerstrom, T.; Clay, P. A.; Silvertooth, Jeff (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 2000)
      An experiment was conducted at the University of Arizona Maricopa Agricultural Center, Maricopa, Arizona in 1999 to compare and evaluate agronomic and economic differences between Ultra Narrow Row (UNR) and conventional cotton row spacing systems with respect to yield, fiber quality, earliness potential, plant growth and development, and production costs. Row spacing was 10 and 40 inches for the UNR and conventional systems, respectively. Two varieties were evaluated within each row spacing, Sure Grow 747 (SG 747) and Delta Pine 429RR (DP 429RR). Lygus populations were extremely high in the Maricopa, Arizona region in 1999 which resulted in poor fruit retention from early through mid-season. As a result of poor boll load through mid-season, the UNR plots were irrigated and grown later into the season than desired along with the conventional cotton in order to set and develop a later season boll load. The mean lint yield averaged across row spacing was significantly greater (P=0.05) in the UNR row spacing at 1334 lb/A than for the conventional row spacing at 1213 lb/A. SG 747 produced 1426 and 1337lb/A of lint in the UNR and conventional systems, respectively. DP 429RR produced 1242 and 1089 lb/A of lint in the UNR and conventional systems respectively. Fiber grades were all 21 or 31 in both UNR and conventional systems. Micronaire was 4.9 or less in both varieties within the UNR system. Micronaire was high at 5.3 in the conventionally produced SG 747 resulting in discount but was acceptable at 4.7 in the conventionally produced DP 429RR. Length and strength measurements met base standards in all cotton variety and row spacing combinations. Neither the conventional or the UNR cotton production systems were profitable due primarily to high chemical insect control costs and early season boll loss. However, UNR production costs were lower by $0.09 per pound than in the conventional system on a cash cost basis and $0.14 per pound lower when considering total costs including variable and ownership costs.
    • 1999 Integrated Cotton Management Demonstration

      Martin, Edward C.; Dittmar, Stefan H.; Ellsworth, Peter C.; Silvertooth, Jeffrey C.; McCloskey, William B.; Olsen, Mary W.; Roth, Robert L.; Tronstad, Russell E.; Silvertooth, Jeff (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 2000)
      An Integrated Cotton Management (ICM) Demonstration project was conducted on the Demonstration Farm at the Maricopa Agricultural Center in 1999 for the second year. In this project, all current guidelines and recommendations disseminated by the University of Arizona were integrated in a systems approach for cotton production. The Extension Specialists in agronomy, entomology, irrigation management, weed sciences, and plant pathology following the University recommendations made the management decisions. On a 52.7 acre field, 78% Bt and 22% non-Bt cotton was planted into moisture on April 9, 1999. Because of problems with cool temperatures and deep seeding, a stand of only 25,000 plants/acre was established. Weed control was achieved with one preplant application and two cultivations. The field was sprayed three times for lygus and two times for whitefly control. Approximately 38.6 acre-inches of irrigation water was applied. An average of 3005 lb/acre of seed cotton were harvested. After harvesting, a field budget was established. The variable costs per acre were $594.96 and the total cost was $957.96/acre. Average micronaire was 4.45, strength was 28.41 gm/Tex, length was 1.10 (1/100 in.) and grade color was 21. The price received for the cotton was 74.82¢/lb, including LPD and hail damage payments, just over 3¢/lb below the break-even price. An additional $139/acre in PFC payments was received but not calculated into the budget. This project demonstrates the utility and compatibility of current recommendations and the potential for integration of all disciplinary guidelines in one system.
    • Use of Insect Growth Regulators and Changing Whitefly Control Costs in Arizona Cotton

      Agnew, G. Ken; Frisvold, George B.; Baker, Paul; Silvertooth, Jeff (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 2000)
      In 1996, two Insect Growth Regulators (IGRs), pyriproxyfen (Knack®) and buprofezin (Applaud®) became available to Arizona cotton growers for control of whitefly, Bemisia argentifolii under a Section 18 EPA exemption. This study makes use of a section-level database to examine (a) factors explaining IGR adoption and (b) how adopters of IGRs altered their overall insecticide use to control whiteflies. IGR adoption can be explained to a large extent by location effects. Adoption was more likely on sections where an index of whitefly susceptibility to synergized pyrethroids was low and on sections with higher whitefly control costs in the previous year. Adoption was inversely related to local population density. On sections where growers adopted IGRs, expenditures on synergized pyrethroid and other whitefly-specific tank mix applications fell by $62.52 per acre. On sections with no IGR adoption, tank mix expenditures fell less, by $44.37 per acre. On adopting sections, net costs of controlling whiteflies fell by $29.62 per acre, or by over $11,000 per farm.
    • Effect of Halosulfuron (Permit), CGA362622, Glyphosate (Roundup Ultra) and Pyrithiobac (Staple) on Purple Nutsedge Growing in a Fallow Field

      Veatch, Maren E.; McCloskey, William B.; Silvertooth, Jeff; Department of Plant Sciences, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 2000)
      In the fall of 1999 an experiment was conducted to measure the effect of CGA- 362622, halosulfuron (Permit), glyphosate (Roundup Ultra) and Pyrithiobac (Staple) on purple nutsedge. Five rates of Permit (0.25, 0.375, 0.495, 0.75 and 1.0 oz a.i./A), three rates of CGA-362622 (3.035, 4.047, and 6.07 g a.i./A), and a single rate each of Roundup Ultra (0.75 lb a.e./A), Staple (1.5 oz a.i./A), Staple + Bueno 6 (2 lb a.i./A), and Staple + Fusilade (0.25 lb a.i./A) were applied either once or twice to field populations of purple nutsedge. Efficacy of each treatment was measured in three ways: phytotoxicity (stunting, chlorosis and/or necrosis) ratings were assigned to each plot (0 being no injury and 10 indicating death), the number of green leaves were counted on 3 large ($8 leaves) and 3 small (≤4 leaves) plants per plot at various times after treatment, and the amount of regrowth after the herbicide treatments was assessed. All of the herbicide treatments caused stunting, induced chlorosis and necrosis, and were fairly effective in controlling nutsedge plants treated at or before the 4-leaf growth stage. Only Permit and CGA-362622 effectively controlled plants treated at the 8-leaf growth stage after one application. The other four herbicides required two applications to obtain effective control. For the regrowth parameter parameters, Permit, CGA-362622 and Roundup Ultra effectively controlled regrowth, but the Staple, Staple + Bueno 6 and the Staple + Fusilade treatments did not control regrowth. Two applications of Permit at the .495 oz a.i./A or greater rates, Roundup Ultra (0.75 lb a.e./A) and 1 or 2 applications of the 6.070 g a.i./A rate of CGA-362622 controlled nutsedge with respect to all measured regrowth parameters and may be the best choices for controlling purple nutsedge.
    • Susceptibility of Arizona Whiteflies to Chloronicotinyl Insecticides and IRGs: New Developments in the 1999 Season

      Li, Yongsheng; Dennehy, Timothy J.; Li, Xiaohua; Wigert, Monika E.; Silvertooth, Jeff; Extension Arthropod Resistance Management Laboratory, Department of Entomology, The University of Arizona (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 2000)
      Whiteflies are serious pests of cotton, melons, and winter vegetables in Arizona’s low deserts. Successful management of whiteflies requires an integrated approach, a critical element of which is routine pest monitoring. In this paper we report findings of our 1999 investigations of resistance of Arizona whiteflies to insect growth regulators (IGRs) and chloronicotinyl insecticides. Whiteflies collected from cotton fields, melon fields and greenhouses were tested for susceptibility to imidacloprid (Admire/Provado), and two other chloronicotinyl insecticides, acetamiprid and thiamethoxam, and to two insect growth regulators (IGRs), buprofezin (Applaud) and pyriproxyfen (Knack). Contrasts of 1999 and 1998 results indicated increased susceptibilities, on average, to both imidacloprid and buprofezin of whiteflies collected from cotton. A cropping system study showed that whiteflies collected from spring melons had significantly lower susceptibility to imidacloprid than those collected from cotton or fall melons. The opposite was found for pyriproxyfen, to which whiteflies from cotton and fall melons had lower susceptibility than those from spring melons. As in 1998, whiteflies with reduced susceptibility to imidacloprid continue to be found in certain locations, particularly in spring melon fields and greenhouses. Results of our laboratory bioassays on susceptibility of Arizona whiteflies to chloronicotinyl insecticides provided evidence of a low order cross-resistance between imidacloprid, acetamiprid and thiamethoxam. Monitoring in 1999 provided the first evidence of reduced susceptibility of Arizona whiteflies to pyriproxyfen.
    • How to Obtain Cotton Advisories from the Internet

      Brown, P.; Russell, B.; Silvertooth, Jeff (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 2000)
      Weekly production advisories and weather updates are now available from the Internet. Nineteen location-specific advisories are developed each Monday morning and then transferred to the Main AZMET Internet Web Page located at URL address http://ag.arizona.edu/azmet. To retrieve advisories or updates from the Internet users must 1) log on to the Internet using the procedures required by your Internet service provider; 2) enter the URL for the Main AZMET Web Page; 3) move to the Cotton Advisory sub-page; and 4) select the advisory or update of interest. Advisories for the most recent week, this year to date, and all of 1999 are available at this Internet address.
    • Effects of Aqueous Sprays of Silverleaf Whitefly Honeydew Sugars on Cotton Lint Stickiness

      Henneberry, T. J.; Forlow Jech, L.; Hendrix, D. L.; Steele, T.; Silvertooth, Jeff; USDA-ARS, Western Cotton Research Laboratory (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 2000)
      Sprays of commercially-procured sugars that are also found in silverleaf whitefly Bemisia argentifolii Bellows and Perring [= B. tabaci (Gennadius) Strain B] honeydew were applied to clean cotton lint to determine the relationship between the sugars and cotton lint stickiness. Increasing concentrations of the sugars resulted in increasing thermodetector counts.
    • Fertility Management and Calibration Evaluations on Upland and Pima Cotton

      Thelander, A. S.; Silvertooth, J. C.; Silvertooth, Jeff (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 2000)
      Numerous field experiments were conducted during the 1997 through 1999 cotton seasons involving macro and micronutrient fertilization. The purpose of these experiments was to evaluate University of Arizona (UA) fertility guidelines with respect to soil test results and to possibly fine-tune or better calibrate these guidelines for common Arizona soils and cotton growing regimes. Field experiments studied the effects of a single nutrient or nutrient combinations on both Upland and Pima varieties. Results from these experiments, based on soil test information, quantitative plant measurements, and lint yield showed no significant difference due to treatments for all sites except for a phosphorus study conducted during the 1998 season in Graham County and a phosphorus study conducted during the 1999 season in Pinal County. All results reinforce current UA soil testing guidelines for cotton.
    • Performance of Bollgard II® Upland Cotton Strains in Arizona

      Moser, H. S.; Silvertooth, Jeff; University of Arizona (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 2000)
      Experimental strains containing the Bollgard II® gene construct have been developed in upland cotton through transformation of DP50B. We evaluated the field performance of two of these new strains at four locations in Arizona. Lint yields of these two lines compare favorably with the parent material used to develop the lines (DP50B), but are significantly lower than other conventional and transgenic varieties that are adapted to Arizona. Fiber quality was not compromised in the Bollgard II strains. In fact, one line, 15813, produced fiber that was of superior quality to DP50B. One of the lines (15985) was similar to DP50B for all traits measured in this test. These results show that the Bollgard II gene construct does not, in itself, compromise agronomic performance. Thus, it should be possible to successfully place Bollgard II into other varieties that are adapted to Arizona in order to produce an agronomically superior variety with the added benefit of the Bollgard II technology.
    • Pink Bollworm Egg Infestations and Larval Survival in NuCOTN 33b and Deltapine Cottons in Arizona

      Henneberry, T. J.; Forlow Jech, L.; de la Torre, T.; Faulconer, S; Hill, J. J.; Silvertooth, Jeff; USDA, ARS, Western Cotton Research Laboratory, Phoenix, AZ (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 2000)
      The gene for the Bacillus thuringiensis var. kurstaki (Berliner) insect toxic protein is a new advance in technology for pink bollworm (PBW), Pectinophora gossypiella (Saunders), control. We conducted studies in 1999 to investigate grower concern for reduced efficacy of NuCOTN 33b (Bt cotton) (Monsanto Company, St Louis, MO) in late-season because of breakdown or non-expression of the toxic protein. We compared the susceptibility of Bt and Deltapine 5415 (Monsanto Company, St Louis, MO) (non-Bt) cotton bolls to PBW at periodic intervals during the first and second cotton fruiting cycles. We placed >200 PBW eggs per boll on the inside surface of bracts of susceptible immature cotton bolls. The artificially infested bolls were later harvested and examined for evidence of PBW infestation. High percentages of both Bt and non-Bt cotton bolls had numerous larval entrance holes in the carpel walls of the bolls. Less than 1% of the Bt cotton bolls and over 70% of the non-Bt cotton bolls were found with living PBW larvae. Bt cotton bolls of the late-season second fruiting cycle were as resistant to PBW infestation as Bt cotton bolls of the first fruiting cycle.
    • Silverleaf Whitefly - Trichome Density Relationships on Selected Upland Cotton Cultivars

      Chu, C. C.; Natwick, E. T.; Henneberry, T. J.; Silvertooth, Jeff; USDA, ARS, Western Cotton Research Laboratory (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 2000)
      We studied silverleaf whitefly (SLW) and trichome density relationships on ten selected upland cotton cultivars: Deltapine #20B, 50B and 90B, NuCOTN 33B, Stoneville 474, Fibermax #819 and 832, Siokra L-23, and 89013-114 at Maricopa, in AZ, 1999. Whitefly and stellate trichome densities were counted on leaves on main stem leaf nodes #1, 3, 5 and 7 of each cultivar. Stoneville 474 had about 2-3 times more eggs, nymphs, and adults and also had 3-30 times more branched trichomes on abaxial leaf surfaces compared with the nine other cultivars. The top young leaves on node #1 had about 6 times more stellate trichomes compared with older leaves. However, the top young leaves also had reduced numbers of eggs and nymphs (23 and 1/cm2 of leaf disk, respectively) compared with older leaves. The results suggest that other factors, in addition to trichomes, at least for young terminal leaves, affect silverleaf whitefly population development.
    • Pima Cotton Regional Variety Trial, Safford Agricultural Center, 1999

      Clark, L. J.; Carpenter, E. W.; Silvertooth, Jeff (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 2000)
      Thirty long staple varieties were tested in a replicated small plot trial on the Safford Agricultural Center in Graham county at an elevation of 2950 feet. The highest yielding variety in this study was Hazera 83-208 with a yield of 1272 pounds of lint per acre. This interspecific hybrid from Israel yielded nearly 300 pounds per acre more lint than the next closest variety. The average yield in the trial was lower than in the previous year’s study. Yield and other agronomic data as well as fiber quality data are contained in this paper.
    • Economic Impacts of Bt Cotton Adoption: A National and Regional Assessment

      Frizvold, George; Tronstad, Russell; Mortensen, Jorgen; Silvertooth, Jeff (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 2000)
      This study uses a quadratic programming model to estimate impacts of Bt cotton adoption on consumer benefits, cotton program outlays, and producer returns, by state and by grower adoption status. Three scenarios were considered simulating low, moderate, and high impacts of Bt cotton adoption. For the moderate impact scenario, U.S. benefits from Bt cotton adoption grew from $44 million in 1996 to $66 million in 1998. Annual U.S. consumer benefits ranged from $46– $55 million. Benefits to Bt adopters grew from $57 million in 1996 to $97 million in 1998. Losses to non-adopters fell from -$59 million in 1996 to -$8 million in 1998 as rising commodity program payments countered the impact of lower prices. In 1998, gains to Arizona Bt cotton adopters (net of adoption costs) were about $9 million, averaging over $15,000 per adopting farm.
    • Arizona Upland Cotton Variety Testing Program, 1999

      Moser, H.; Clark, L.; Husman, S.; Clay, P.; Silvertooth, J.; Silvertooth, Jeff; University of Arizona Cooperative Extension (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 2000)
      Each year the University of Arizona conducts on-farm variety trials across the state to evaluate the performance of upland cotton varieties. These tests provide many segments of the industry with unbiased, independent data on the performance of varieties from several seed companies when tested side-by-side under typical production practices. Ten trials were planted in the cotton producing areas of the state, ranging from Wellton in Yuma county to Kansas Settlement in Cochise county. Seed companies entered a maximum of two varieties per location resulting in eight to thirteen commercially available varieties per test. The results show that many varieties performed well at several locations, indicating good adaptation to Arizona conditions.