• Economic Impacts of Bt Cotton Adoption: A National and Regional Assessment

      Frizvold, George; Tronstad, Russell; Mortensen, Jorgen; Silvertooth, Jeff (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 2000)
      This study uses a quadratic programming model to estimate impacts of Bt cotton adoption on consumer benefits, cotton program outlays, and producer returns, by state and by grower adoption status. Three scenarios were considered simulating low, moderate, and high impacts of Bt cotton adoption. For the moderate impact scenario, U.S. benefits from Bt cotton adoption grew from $44 million in 1996 to $66 million in 1998. Annual U.S. consumer benefits ranged from $46– $55 million. Benefits to Bt adopters grew from $57 million in 1996 to $97 million in 1998. Losses to non-adopters fell from -$59 million in 1996 to -$8 million in 1998 as rising commodity program payments countered the impact of lower prices. In 1998, gains to Arizona Bt cotton adopters (net of adoption costs) were about $9 million, averaging over $15,000 per adopting farm.
    • Effect of Halosulfuron (Permit), CGA362622, Glyphosate (Roundup Ultra) and Pyrithiobac (Staple) on Purple Nutsedge Growing in a Fallow Field

      Veatch, Maren E.; McCloskey, William B.; Silvertooth, Jeff; Department of Plant Sciences, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 2000)
      In the fall of 1999 an experiment was conducted to measure the effect of CGA- 362622, halosulfuron (Permit), glyphosate (Roundup Ultra) and Pyrithiobac (Staple) on purple nutsedge. Five rates of Permit (0.25, 0.375, 0.495, 0.75 and 1.0 oz a.i./A), three rates of CGA-362622 (3.035, 4.047, and 6.07 g a.i./A), and a single rate each of Roundup Ultra (0.75 lb a.e./A), Staple (1.5 oz a.i./A), Staple + Bueno 6 (2 lb a.i./A), and Staple + Fusilade (0.25 lb a.i./A) were applied either once or twice to field populations of purple nutsedge. Efficacy of each treatment was measured in three ways: phytotoxicity (stunting, chlorosis and/or necrosis) ratings were assigned to each plot (0 being no injury and 10 indicating death), the number of green leaves were counted on 3 large ($8 leaves) and 3 small (≤4 leaves) plants per plot at various times after treatment, and the amount of regrowth after the herbicide treatments was assessed. All of the herbicide treatments caused stunting, induced chlorosis and necrosis, and were fairly effective in controlling nutsedge plants treated at or before the 4-leaf growth stage. Only Permit and CGA-362622 effectively controlled plants treated at the 8-leaf growth stage after one application. The other four herbicides required two applications to obtain effective control. For the regrowth parameter parameters, Permit, CGA-362622 and Roundup Ultra effectively controlled regrowth, but the Staple, Staple + Bueno 6 and the Staple + Fusilade treatments did not control regrowth. Two applications of Permit at the .495 oz a.i./A or greater rates, Roundup Ultra (0.75 lb a.e./A) and 1 or 2 applications of the 6.070 g a.i./A rate of CGA-362622 controlled nutsedge with respect to all measured regrowth parameters and may be the best choices for controlling purple nutsedge.
    • Effects of Aqueous Sprays of Silverleaf Whitefly Honeydew Sugars on Cotton Lint Stickiness

      Henneberry, T. J.; Forlow Jech, L.; Hendrix, D. L.; Steele, T.; Silvertooth, Jeff; USDA-ARS, Western Cotton Research Laboratory (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 2000)
      Sprays of commercially-procured sugars that are also found in silverleaf whitefly Bemisia argentifolii Bellows and Perring [= B. tabaci (Gennadius) Strain B] honeydew were applied to clean cotton lint to determine the relationship between the sugars and cotton lint stickiness. Increasing concentrations of the sugars resulted in increasing thermodetector counts.
    • Effects of High Frequency Irrigation on Irrigation Uniformity II

      Martin, E. C.; Wegge, R.; Sheedy, M.; Silvertooth, Jeff; University of Arizona, Cooperative Extension (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 2000)
      Another year of data was collected to determine the effects of high frequency irrigation on irrigation uniformity in cotton production. A field located at the Marana Agricultural Center was split into two treatments. Treatment one was irrigated at approximately 35% depletion of available water in the plant rootzone. Treatment two was irrigated at approximately 65% depletion in the crop rootzone. Increased frequency of irrigation has shown improved yields in many cotton studies. However, these more frequent and lighter irrigation applications may cause problems with irrigation uniformity. Frequent rains during critical time periods made it difficult to ascertain the impact of the irrigation schedule on uniformity. However, the less frequent, heavier application rate did result in a more uniform irrigation.
    • Evaluation of a Calcium-Based Soil Conditioner in Irrigated Cotton

      Silvertooth, J. C.; Norton, E. R.; Silvertooth, Jeff (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 2000)
      A two site evaluation of a calcium (Ca²⁺)-based soil conditioner was conducted during the 1999 cotton season. The two locations included one at the Maricopa Agricultural Center (MAC) in Maricopa, AZ and the other was on a growercooperator field in Tacna, AZ. Both studies involved the use of CN-9, a Ca – nitrate solution with 9% nitrogen and 11% Ca. At MAC theCN-9 solution was sprayed over the seedbed post planting but prior to the first water-up irrigation. At the Tacna site CN-9 was applied in a sidedress application at planting. Routine plant measurements were taken throughout the duration of both studies and lint yield estimates were made at each location at the end of the season. No significant differences due to the application of CN-9 were detected in any data collected.
    • Evaluation of a Feedback Approach to Nitrogen and Pix Applications, 1998 and 1999

      Norton, E. J.; Silvertooth, J. C.; Norton, E. R.; Silvertooth, Jeff (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 2000)
      A single field experiment was conducted at Marana, AZ in 1988 and 1999 to evaluate a scheduled (based upon stage of growth) versus a feedback approach (based upon growth parameters and crop conditions) to nitrogen (N) and mepiquat chloride (PixTM) applications on Upland cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.). The parameters used in the feedback applications for both N and Pix included fruit retention (FR) levels and height to node ratios (HNRs) with respect to established baselines for irrigated cotton grown in the desert Southwest. Treatments consisted of all combinations of feedback and scheduled applications of both N and Pix. In 1998, the highest lint yields occurred in the treatment consisting of Pix feedback and N feedback (treatment two) management. However, there were no significant differences (P≤0.05) among any of the treatments with respect to yield. In 1999, significant light yield increases (P<0.05) were found in the treatments consisting of Pix feedback and N feedback (treatment two), Pix scheduled and N scheduled (treatment three), and Pix scheduled and N scheduled (treatment five) management approaches.
    • Evaluation of an Arid Soil Conditioner in an Irrigated Cotton Production System

      Norton, E. R.; Silvertooth, J. C.; Silvertooth, Jeff (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 2000)
      A single field study was conducted on a sodium-affected soil at the University of Arizona’s Maricopa Agricultural Center (MAC) in 1999. Deltapine DP33B was dry planted and watered-up on 13 April 1999. Two treatments were evaluated; treatment 1 received no acid and treatment 2 received water-run acid applications. The acid used in this evaluation was sulfuric acid (H2SO4) and was applied at approximately 11 gallons acid/acre at each scheduled irrigation throughout the entire growing season. All other agronomic inputs and decisions were uniformly applied to both treatments. Lint yields were not significantly different.
    • Evaluation of Commerical Ultra Narrow Cotton Production in Arizona

      Clay, P. A.; Isom, L. D.; McCloskey, W. B.; Husman, S. H.; Silvertooth, Jeff; University of Arizona Cooperative Extension (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 2000)
      Seven commercial ultra narrow row (UNR) cotton fields were monitored on a weekly basis in Maricopa County, AZ in 1999. Varieties of Delta Pine and Sure Grow were planted from April 15 to June 1 and reached cut-out after accumulating 1913 to 2327 heat units after planting. Average yield for UNR cotton was 2.1 bales per acre which was 0.4 bales per acre lower than the five year average for cotton planted on conventional row spacings. Fiber quality from gin records for 801 bales had average micronaire readings of 4.54 and grades of 11 and 21 for 74% of bales. Discounts for extraneous matter (bark, grass, and cracked seed) was 5.4% and average strength (34.8) and staple lengths (27.12) were in acceptable ranges. Total cash costs ranged from $450 to $705.
    • Fertility Management and Calibration Evaluations on Upland and Pima Cotton

      Thelander, A. S.; Silvertooth, J. C.; Silvertooth, Jeff (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 2000)
      Numerous field experiments were conducted during the 1997 through 1999 cotton seasons involving macro and micronutrient fertilization. The purpose of these experiments was to evaluate University of Arizona (UA) fertility guidelines with respect to soil test results and to possibly fine-tune or better calibrate these guidelines for common Arizona soils and cotton growing regimes. Field experiments studied the effects of a single nutrient or nutrient combinations on both Upland and Pima varieties. Results from these experiments, based on soil test information, quantitative plant measurements, and lint yield showed no significant difference due to treatments for all sites except for a phosphorus study conducted during the 1998 season in Graham County and a phosphorus study conducted during the 1999 season in Pinal County. All results reinforce current UA soil testing guidelines for cotton.
    • How to Obtain Cotton Advisories from the Internet

      Brown, P.; Russell, B.; Silvertooth, Jeff (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 2000)
      Weekly production advisories and weather updates are now available from the Internet. Nineteen location-specific advisories are developed each Monday morning and then transferred to the Main AZMET Internet Web Page located at URL address http://ag.arizona.edu/azmet. To retrieve advisories or updates from the Internet users must 1) log on to the Internet using the procedures required by your Internet service provider; 2) enter the URL for the Main AZMET Web Page; 3) move to the Cotton Advisory sub-page; and 4) select the advisory or update of interest. Advisories for the most recent week, this year to date, and all of 1999 are available at this Internet address.
    • Influence of Ironite and Phosphorus on Long and Short Cotton on the Safford Agricultural Center, 1999

      Clark, L. J.; Carpenter, E. W.; Silvertooth, Jeff (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 2000)
      Ironite and phosphorus were applied to plots planted to long and short staple cotton to find their effect on crop development and lint yield. The soil analysis indicated sufficient iron and phosphorous in the soil for cotton production and that yield increases from additions of these elements were unlikely. No statistically significant increases in lint yield were seen with the addition of Ironite nor phosphorous fertilizer. However, an interesting yield trend with ironite was seen in long staple cotton.
    • Johnsongrass Control in Cotton with BAS 620

      Clay, P. A.; Isom, L. D.; Silvertooth, Jeff; University of Arizona Cooperative Extension (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 2000)
      Johnsongrass control with BAS 620 was 60% and 67% for the 0.124 and 0.248 lb ai/A rates respectively, 14 d after initial application. Control was comparable to Select at the corresponding rates. Control 28 d after the second application of graminicides ranged from 60% to 88%. Both rates of BAS 620 and Select as well as Fusilade DX provided the most effective control. Seed cotton yields ranged from 1347 to 3134 lbs/A and all herbicide treatments yielded significantly greater than the nontreated check.
    • Lygus Control Decision Aids for Arizona Cotton

      Ellsworth, Peter C.; Silvertooth, Jeff; The University of Arizona, Department of Entomology & Maricopa Agricultural Center (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 2000)
      Changes in insecticide use, available pest control technologies, and local crop ecology together with severely depressed cotton prices place a renewed premium on Lygus control decision aids for Arizona cotton. As part of an on-going program to develop research-based Lygus management recommendations, we investigated the impact of various timings of chemical controls on Lygus population dynamics, number of sprays, costs of control, and net revenue as well as cotton heights, trash, lint turnouts, and yields. Once there were at least 15 total Lygus per 100 sweeps, sprays were made according to the number of nymphs in the sample (0, 1, 4, 8 or 16 per 100 sweeps). Up to 7 sprays were required (15/0 regime) to meet the needs of the target threshold. Lygus adult densities were largely unresponsive to the treatment regimes or individual sprays made. Three generations of nymphs, however, were affected by the treatments with the ‘15/4’ regime harboring the fewest nymphs through July. This ‘moderate’ regime required 4 sprays and had the shortest plants, cleanest harvest, and highest lint turnouts. In addition, this regime out-yielded all other treatment regimes including the 6- (15/ 1) and 7- (15/0) spray regimes. Regression analyses of the data suggest that adult Lygus are less related to yield loss than nymphs and that large nymphs are best correlated with yield loss. Thus, spraying based on adults only would appear illadvised. Returns were highest ($747/A) for the 15/4 regime with over $100 more than the more protective regimes. Thus, there is no economic advantage in advancing chemical control when nymph levels are low. Maximum economic gain was achieved by waiting for the 4 nymphs per 100 level (with 15 total Lygus/100; 15/4) before spraying. However, waiting too long (beyond the 8 nymphs / 100 level; 15/8) resulted in significant reductions in yield and revenue. Our recommendations, therefore, are to apply insecticides against Lygus when there are at least 15 total Lygus, including at least 4 nymphs, per 100 sweeps. These recommendations are stable over a wide variety of economic conditions (market prices & insecticide costs). Continued work is necessary to verify these findings over a wider range of cotton developmental stages, varieties, and other environmental conditions.
    • Mepiquat Chloride Effects on Irrigated Cotton in Arizona

      Norton, E. J.; Silvertooh, J. C.; Silvertooth, Jeff (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 2000)
      A series of experiments have been conducted from 1988 to 1999 at various locations across the cotton producing regions of Arizona to evaluate mepiquat chloride (MC) applications in terms of plant growth and yield. These experiments were designed to evaluate MC under three application regimes. These regimes included low rate multiple applications, late season applications, and a feedback vs. scheduled management of MC and nitrogen (N) applications. The objective of this summary (including a total of 31 site-years) is to determine which of these three application regimes offer the greatest opportunity for a positive lint yield response to MC. Stability analysis was conducted by regressing the treatment mean lint yield against the environmental mean for each application regime. Results from the stability analyses revealed that the most viable method of application is a feedback approach for both MC and fertilizer N. The most reliable technique associated with plant assessment in a feedback approach was the height to node ratio (HNR) to indicate vegetative tendencies for determining the appropriate rate and timing of MC applications.
    • The New U. S. - China Trade Agreement and Arizona Cotton

      Ayer, Harry; Frizvold, George; Silvertooth, Jeff (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 2000)
      Gaining greater access to export markets, particularly Asian markets, is important to Arizona cotton producers. Over 80 percent of Arizona’s cotton shipments are exports, roughly double the U.S. average. Asian countries typically account for half of world cotton imports. Relative to the rest of the United States, Arizona (along with California) has a location advantage supplying these markets. In November 1999 the United States and China signed a trade agreement to reduce China’s trade barriers and win U.S. support for China’s entry into the World Trade Organization (WTO). According to recent USDA projections, the agreement would increase China’s net cotton imports by $359 million when fully implemented in 2005 and by $328 million per year between 2000-09. Political uncertainty surrounds the timing of China’s accession to the WTO, however, and China’s return to cotton net-importer status could be delayed by Chinese policies to draw down their large accumulation of cotton stocks.
    • Nitrogen Management Experiments for Upland and Pima Cotton, 1999

      Silvertooth, J. C.; Norton, E. R.; Silvertooth, Jeff (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 2000)
      Two field experiments were conducted in Arizona in 1999 at two locations (Maricopa and Marana). The Maricopa experiment has been conducted for nine consecutive seasons, the Marana site was initiated in 1994. The purposes of the experiments were to validate and refine nitrogen (N) fertilization recommendations for Upland cotton. The experiments each utilized N management tools such as pre-season soil tests for NO₃⁻-N, in-season plant tissue testing (petioles) for N fertility status, and crop monitoring to ascertain crop fruiting patterns and crop N needs. At each location, treatments varied from a conservative to a more aggressive approach of N management. Results at each location revealed a strong relationship between the crop fruit retention levels and N needs for the crop. This pattern was further reflected in final yield analysis as a response to the N fertilization regimes used. The higher, more aggressive, N application regimes did not benefit yields at any location. In 1999, fruit retention levels were low and crop vigor was high at the Maricopa site. As a result, even slight increases in N fertilization and crop vigor translated into lower yield.
    • Performance of Bollgard II® Upland Cotton Strains in Arizona

      Moser, H. S.; Silvertooth, Jeff; University of Arizona (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 2000)
      Experimental strains containing the Bollgard II® gene construct have been developed in upland cotton through transformation of DP50B. We evaluated the field performance of two of these new strains at four locations in Arizona. Lint yields of these two lines compare favorably with the parent material used to develop the lines (DP50B), but are significantly lower than other conventional and transgenic varieties that are adapted to Arizona. Fiber quality was not compromised in the Bollgard II strains. In fact, one line, 15813, produced fiber that was of superior quality to DP50B. One of the lines (15985) was similar to DP50B for all traits measured in this test. These results show that the Bollgard II gene construct does not, in itself, compromise agronomic performance. Thus, it should be possible to successfully place Bollgard II into other varieties that are adapted to Arizona in order to produce an agronomically superior variety with the added benefit of the Bollgard II technology.
    • Pesticide Use in Arizona Cotton: Long-Term Trends and 1999 Data

      Agnew, G. E.; Baker, P. B.; Silvertooth, Jeff; Pesticide Information and Training Office (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 2000)
      Arizona pesticide use, as reported on the Department of Agriculture's form 1080, can be summarized to provide a rich picture of pest management in Arizona cotton. Limitations in the pesticide use reporting system complicate the process but do not undermine results. Overall pesticide use decreased over the period 1991 to 1998 despite a peak during the whitefly infestation of 1995. Decreases in insecticide use are responsible for most of the reduction in pesticide use. Recently released 1999 data indicates that reductions continued. Comparison of the composition of pesticide applications between 1995 and 1998 reflect the changes in pest control efforts. A new "target pest" category on the 1080 provides an even richer picture of pest management practices in Arizona cotton.
    • Pima Cotton Regional Variety Trial, Safford Agricultural Center, 1999

      Clark, L. J.; Carpenter, E. W.; Silvertooth, Jeff (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 2000)
      Thirty long staple varieties were tested in a replicated small plot trial on the Safford Agricultural Center in Graham county at an elevation of 2950 feet. The highest yielding variety in this study was Hazera 83-208 with a yield of 1272 pounds of lint per acre. This interspecific hybrid from Israel yielded nearly 300 pounds per acre more lint than the next closest variety. The average yield in the trial was lower than in the previous year’s study. Yield and other agronomic data as well as fiber quality data are contained in this paper.
    • Pink Bollworm Egg Infestations and Larval Survival in NuCOTN 33b and Deltapine Cottons in Arizona

      Henneberry, T. J.; Forlow Jech, L.; de la Torre, T.; Faulconer, S; Hill, J. J.; Silvertooth, Jeff; USDA, ARS, Western Cotton Research Laboratory, Phoenix, AZ (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 2000)
      The gene for the Bacillus thuringiensis var. kurstaki (Berliner) insect toxic protein is a new advance in technology for pink bollworm (PBW), Pectinophora gossypiella (Saunders), control. We conducted studies in 1999 to investigate grower concern for reduced efficacy of NuCOTN 33b (Bt cotton) (Monsanto Company, St Louis, MO) in late-season because of breakdown or non-expression of the toxic protein. We compared the susceptibility of Bt and Deltapine 5415 (Monsanto Company, St Louis, MO) (non-Bt) cotton bolls to PBW at periodic intervals during the first and second cotton fruiting cycles. We placed >200 PBW eggs per boll on the inside surface of bracts of susceptible immature cotton bolls. The artificially infested bolls were later harvested and examined for evidence of PBW infestation. High percentages of both Bt and non-Bt cotton bolls had numerous larval entrance holes in the carpel walls of the bolls. Less than 1% of the Bt cotton bolls and over 70% of the non-Bt cotton bolls were found with living PBW larvae. Bt cotton bolls of the late-season second fruiting cycle were as resistant to PBW infestation as Bt cotton bolls of the first fruiting cycle.