• Short Staple Variety Trials, Graham County, 1999

      Clark. L. J.; Carpenter, E. W.; Silvertooth, Jeff (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 2000)
      Two replicated on-farm short staple variety trials were planted in 1999. Twenty-two varieties were evaluated on the Claridge farm in Solomon and fifteen varieties on the Colvin farm near Ft. Thomas. Several new varieties were planted in these studies, including 2 transgenic varieties: DP 5690RR, BXN 16; 4 Israeli inter-specific hybrids and six other varieties seen for the first time. DP 35B was the highest yielding variety in the Claridge trial with BXN 47 a close second. Both varieties yielded over 1300 pounds of lint per acre. PM 1440 was the highest yielding variety in the Colvin trial with SG 747 and DP 5690RR following closely behind. These varieties yielded between 700 and 800 pounds of lint per acre. Other agronomic data from the varieties and HVI values from the lint are also included in this report.
    • Effects of Aqueous Sprays of Silverleaf Whitefly Honeydew Sugars on Cotton Lint Stickiness

      Henneberry, T. J.; Forlow Jech, L.; Hendrix, D. L.; Steele, T.; Silvertooth, Jeff; USDA-ARS, Western Cotton Research Laboratory (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 2000)
      Sprays of commercially-procured sugars that are also found in silverleaf whitefly Bemisia argentifolii Bellows and Perring [= B. tabaci (Gennadius) Strain B] honeydew were applied to clean cotton lint to determine the relationship between the sugars and cotton lint stickiness. Increasing concentrations of the sugars resulted in increasing thermodetector counts.
    • Evaluation of a Calcium-Based Soil Conditioner in Irrigated Cotton

      Silvertooth, J. C.; Norton, E. R.; Silvertooth, Jeff (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 2000)
      A two site evaluation of a calcium (Ca²⁺)-based soil conditioner was conducted during the 1999 cotton season. The two locations included one at the Maricopa Agricultural Center (MAC) in Maricopa, AZ and the other was on a growercooperator field in Tacna, AZ. Both studies involved the use of CN-9, a Ca – nitrate solution with 9% nitrogen and 11% Ca. At MAC theCN-9 solution was sprayed over the seedbed post planting but prior to the first water-up irrigation. At the Tacna site CN-9 was applied in a sidedress application at planting. Routine plant measurements were taken throughout the duration of both studies and lint yield estimates were made at each location at the end of the season. No significant differences due to the application of CN-9 were detected in any data collected.
    • Lygus Control Decision Aids for Arizona Cotton

      Ellsworth, Peter C.; Silvertooth, Jeff; The University of Arizona, Department of Entomology & Maricopa Agricultural Center (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 2000)
      Changes in insecticide use, available pest control technologies, and local crop ecology together with severely depressed cotton prices place a renewed premium on Lygus control decision aids for Arizona cotton. As part of an on-going program to develop research-based Lygus management recommendations, we investigated the impact of various timings of chemical controls on Lygus population dynamics, number of sprays, costs of control, and net revenue as well as cotton heights, trash, lint turnouts, and yields. Once there were at least 15 total Lygus per 100 sweeps, sprays were made according to the number of nymphs in the sample (0, 1, 4, 8 or 16 per 100 sweeps). Up to 7 sprays were required (15/0 regime) to meet the needs of the target threshold. Lygus adult densities were largely unresponsive to the treatment regimes or individual sprays made. Three generations of nymphs, however, were affected by the treatments with the ‘15/4’ regime harboring the fewest nymphs through July. This ‘moderate’ regime required 4 sprays and had the shortest plants, cleanest harvest, and highest lint turnouts. In addition, this regime out-yielded all other treatment regimes including the 6- (15/ 1) and 7- (15/0) spray regimes. Regression analyses of the data suggest that adult Lygus are less related to yield loss than nymphs and that large nymphs are best correlated with yield loss. Thus, spraying based on adults only would appear illadvised. Returns were highest ($747/A) for the 15/4 regime with over $100 more than the more protective regimes. Thus, there is no economic advantage in advancing chemical control when nymph levels are low. Maximum economic gain was achieved by waiting for the 4 nymphs per 100 level (with 15 total Lygus/100; 15/4) before spraying. However, waiting too long (beyond the 8 nymphs / 100 level; 15/8) resulted in significant reductions in yield and revenue. Our recommendations, therefore, are to apply insecticides against Lygus when there are at least 15 total Lygus, including at least 4 nymphs, per 100 sweeps. These recommendations are stable over a wide variety of economic conditions (market prices & insecticide costs). Continued work is necessary to verify these findings over a wider range of cotton developmental stages, varieties, and other environmental conditions.
    • Cotton Fertility Study, Safford Agricultural Center, 1999

      Clark, L. J.; Carpenter, E. W.; Silvertooth, Jeff (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 2000)
      Three different nitrogen fertilizer regimes were practiced in this study along with an unfertilized check. The same amount of nitrogen fertilizer was sidedressed in the plots in one, two or three applications. No statistically significant differences were seen between lint yields in this study nor in the previous study, but the yield trends were very similar. Applying the fertilizer nitrogen in two equal portions at the onset of rapid vegetative growth and just before peak bloom appeared to produce the best lint yield.
    • Preliminary Investigations in Ultra-narrow Row Cotton, Safford Agricultural Center, 1999

      Clark, L. J.; Carpenter, E. W.; Silvertooth, Jeff (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 2000)
      A preliminary investigation was made in Ultra-narrow row cotton production on the Safford Agricultural Center to see if there was any promise in that technology for cotton producers in the high deserts of Arizona. Increases in plant populations to near 100,000 plants per acre in single lines, double lines and quadruple lines per bed were the goals of the study. In-season plant mapping to evaluate differences in plant growth characteristics were done along with yield measurements to evaluate differences. Yield increases were not seen with increases in plant populations in single row plantings nor in multiple row plantings.
    • Agronomic Evaluation of Transgenic Cotton Varieties

      Moser, H. S.; McCloskey, W. B.; Silvertooth, J. C.; Silvertooth, Jeff; Department of Plant Sciences, University of Arizona (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 2000)
      Four field tests were conducted at three Arizona locations in 1999 to evaluate the performance of transgenic cotton varieties in Arizona. We included a total of 34 varieties in one or more of these tests. Across locations and varieties, Bollgard (BG) and stacked BG and Roundup Ready (BGRR) varieties produced about 7 to 8% greater lint yields than the conventional varieties from which they were derived. Across all varieties and all tests, the average lint yield of the Roundup Ultra sprayed RR or BGRR treatments was 1569 lb./A, while the average yield of the unsprayed RR or BGRR treatments was 1580 lb./A. Roundup Ready (RR) varieties produced lint yields similar to the conventional varieties with a couple of exceptions. Roundup Ready varieties tended to be taller and more vigorous than the conventional parent. Transgenic varieties were often different from the conventional parent in one or more traits, such as fiber quality, lint percent, boll weight, or maturity, but the variation was not associated with a particular transgene.
    • Pima Cotton Regional Variety Trial, Safford Agricultural Center, 1999

      Clark, L. J.; Carpenter, E. W.; Silvertooth, Jeff (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 2000)
      Thirty long staple varieties were tested in a replicated small plot trial on the Safford Agricultural Center in Graham county at an elevation of 2950 feet. The highest yielding variety in this study was Hazera 83-208 with a yield of 1272 pounds of lint per acre. This interspecific hybrid from Israel yielded nearly 300 pounds per acre more lint than the next closest variety. The average yield in the trial was lower than in the previous year’s study. Yield and other agronomic data as well as fiber quality data are contained in this paper.
    • Fertility Management and Calibration Evaluations on Upland and Pima Cotton

      Thelander, A. S.; Silvertooth, J. C.; Silvertooth, Jeff (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 2000)
      Numerous field experiments were conducted during the 1997 through 1999 cotton seasons involving macro and micronutrient fertilization. The purpose of these experiments was to evaluate University of Arizona (UA) fertility guidelines with respect to soil test results and to possibly fine-tune or better calibrate these guidelines for common Arizona soils and cotton growing regimes. Field experiments studied the effects of a single nutrient or nutrient combinations on both Upland and Pima varieties. Results from these experiments, based on soil test information, quantitative plant measurements, and lint yield showed no significant difference due to treatments for all sites except for a phosphorus study conducted during the 1998 season in Graham County and a phosphorus study conducted during the 1999 season in Pinal County. All results reinforce current UA soil testing guidelines for cotton.
    • Performance of Bollgard II® Upland Cotton Strains in Arizona

      Moser, H. S.; Silvertooth, Jeff; University of Arizona (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 2000)
      Experimental strains containing the Bollgard II® gene construct have been developed in upland cotton through transformation of DP50B. We evaluated the field performance of two of these new strains at four locations in Arizona. Lint yields of these two lines compare favorably with the parent material used to develop the lines (DP50B), but are significantly lower than other conventional and transgenic varieties that are adapted to Arizona. Fiber quality was not compromised in the Bollgard II strains. In fact, one line, 15813, produced fiber that was of superior quality to DP50B. One of the lines (15985) was similar to DP50B for all traits measured in this test. These results show that the Bollgard II gene construct does not, in itself, compromise agronomic performance. Thus, it should be possible to successfully place Bollgard II into other varieties that are adapted to Arizona in order to produce an agronomically superior variety with the added benefit of the Bollgard II technology.
    • Pesticide Use in Arizona Cotton: Long-Term Trends and 1999 Data

      Agnew, G. E.; Baker, P. B.; Silvertooth, Jeff; Pesticide Information and Training Office (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 2000)
      Arizona pesticide use, as reported on the Department of Agriculture's form 1080, can be summarized to provide a rich picture of pest management in Arizona cotton. Limitations in the pesticide use reporting system complicate the process but do not undermine results. Overall pesticide use decreased over the period 1991 to 1998 despite a peak during the whitefly infestation of 1995. Decreases in insecticide use are responsible for most of the reduction in pesticide use. Recently released 1999 data indicates that reductions continued. Comparison of the composition of pesticide applications between 1995 and 1998 reflect the changes in pest control efforts. A new "target pest" category on the 1080 provides an even richer picture of pest management practices in Arizona cotton.
    • Upland Cotton Regional Variety Trial

      Moser, H.; Hart, G.; Clark, L.; Silvertooth, Jeff; University of Arizona Cooperative Extension (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 2000)
      Each year the University of Arizona conducts upland cotton variety tests to evaluate the performance of a diverse set of experimental lines and commercial varieties in Arizona. One such program is the Regional Variety Test (RVT). In 1999, we evaluated a total of 59 varieties at one or more locations in Arizona. These varieties were submitted to us for testing by 16 private seed companies and two public breeding programs. This report presents the results of the trials conducted at Maricopa, Marana, and Safford.
    • Effect of Halosulfuron (Permit), CGA362622, Glyphosate (Roundup Ultra) and Pyrithiobac (Staple) on Purple Nutsedge Growing in a Fallow Field

      Veatch, Maren E.; McCloskey, William B.; Silvertooth, Jeff; Department of Plant Sciences, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 2000)
      In the fall of 1999 an experiment was conducted to measure the effect of CGA- 362622, halosulfuron (Permit), glyphosate (Roundup Ultra) and Pyrithiobac (Staple) on purple nutsedge. Five rates of Permit (0.25, 0.375, 0.495, 0.75 and 1.0 oz a.i./A), three rates of CGA-362622 (3.035, 4.047, and 6.07 g a.i./A), and a single rate each of Roundup Ultra (0.75 lb a.e./A), Staple (1.5 oz a.i./A), Staple + Bueno 6 (2 lb a.i./A), and Staple + Fusilade (0.25 lb a.i./A) were applied either once or twice to field populations of purple nutsedge. Efficacy of each treatment was measured in three ways: phytotoxicity (stunting, chlorosis and/or necrosis) ratings were assigned to each plot (0 being no injury and 10 indicating death), the number of green leaves were counted on 3 large ($8 leaves) and 3 small (≤4 leaves) plants per plot at various times after treatment, and the amount of regrowth after the herbicide treatments was assessed. All of the herbicide treatments caused stunting, induced chlorosis and necrosis, and were fairly effective in controlling nutsedge plants treated at or before the 4-leaf growth stage. Only Permit and CGA-362622 effectively controlled plants treated at the 8-leaf growth stage after one application. The other four herbicides required two applications to obtain effective control. For the regrowth parameter parameters, Permit, CGA-362622 and Roundup Ultra effectively controlled regrowth, but the Staple, Staple + Bueno 6 and the Staple + Fusilade treatments did not control regrowth. Two applications of Permit at the .495 oz a.i./A or greater rates, Roundup Ultra (0.75 lb a.e./A) and 1 or 2 applications of the 6.070 g a.i./A rate of CGA-362622 controlled nutsedge with respect to all measured regrowth parameters and may be the best choices for controlling purple nutsedge.
    • Date of Planting by Long Staple and Short Staple Variety Trial, Stafford Agricultural Center, 1999

      Clark, L. J.; Carpenter, E. W.; Silvertooth, Jeff (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 2000)
      Four varieties each of Long Staple and Short Staple cotton were tested over five and four dates of planting, respectively, in this study. The first date of planting for the Long Staple cotton was the 18th of March and for Short Staple cotton the 1st of April. The latest planting was May 13th. Cultivars of differing maturities were tested for both long and short staple cotton to determine their optimal planting time. Many agronomic parameters were evaluated to determine the effect of different planting dates
    • Johnsongrass Control in Cotton with BAS 620

      Clay, P. A.; Isom, L. D.; Silvertooth, Jeff; University of Arizona Cooperative Extension (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 2000)
      Johnsongrass control with BAS 620 was 60% and 67% for the 0.124 and 0.248 lb ai/A rates respectively, 14 d after initial application. Control was comparable to Select at the corresponding rates. Control 28 d after the second application of graminicides ranged from 60% to 88%. Both rates of BAS 620 and Select as well as Fusilade DX provided the most effective control. Seed cotton yields ranged from 1347 to 3134 lbs/A and all herbicide treatments yielded significantly greater than the nontreated check.
    • Arizona Upland Cotton Variety Testing Program, 1999

      Moser, H.; Clark, L.; Husman, S.; Clay, P.; Silvertooth, J.; Silvertooth, Jeff; University of Arizona Cooperative Extension (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 2000)
      Each year the University of Arizona conducts on-farm variety trials across the state to evaluate the performance of upland cotton varieties. These tests provide many segments of the industry with unbiased, independent data on the performance of varieties from several seed companies when tested side-by-side under typical production practices. Ten trials were planted in the cotton producing areas of the state, ranging from Wellton in Yuma county to Kansas Settlement in Cochise county. Seed companies entered a maximum of two varieties per location resulting in eight to thirteen commercially available varieties per test. The results show that many varieties performed well at several locations, indicating good adaptation to Arizona conditions.
    • Nitrogen Management Experiments for Upland and Pima Cotton, 1999

      Silvertooth, J. C.; Norton, E. R.; Silvertooth, Jeff (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 2000)
      Two field experiments were conducted in Arizona in 1999 at two locations (Maricopa and Marana). The Maricopa experiment has been conducted for nine consecutive seasons, the Marana site was initiated in 1994. The purposes of the experiments were to validate and refine nitrogen (N) fertilization recommendations for Upland cotton. The experiments each utilized N management tools such as pre-season soil tests for NO₃⁻-N, in-season plant tissue testing (petioles) for N fertility status, and crop monitoring to ascertain crop fruiting patterns and crop N needs. At each location, treatments varied from a conservative to a more aggressive approach of N management. Results at each location revealed a strong relationship between the crop fruit retention levels and N needs for the crop. This pattern was further reflected in final yield analysis as a response to the N fertilization regimes used. The higher, more aggressive, N application regimes did not benefit yields at any location. In 1999, fruit retention levels were low and crop vigor was high at the Maricopa site. As a result, even slight increases in N fertilization and crop vigor translated into lower yield.
    • Effects of High Frequency Irrigation on Irrigation Uniformity II

      Martin, E. C.; Wegge, R.; Sheedy, M.; Silvertooth, Jeff; University of Arizona, Cooperative Extension (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 2000)
      Another year of data was collected to determine the effects of high frequency irrigation on irrigation uniformity in cotton production. A field located at the Marana Agricultural Center was split into two treatments. Treatment one was irrigated at approximately 35% depletion of available water in the plant rootzone. Treatment two was irrigated at approximately 65% depletion in the crop rootzone. Increased frequency of irrigation has shown improved yields in many cotton studies. However, these more frequent and lighter irrigation applications may cause problems with irrigation uniformity. Frequent rains during critical time periods made it difficult to ascertain the impact of the irrigation schedule on uniformity. However, the less frequent, heavier application rate did result in a more uniform irrigation.
    • Mepiquat Chloride Effects on Irrigated Cotton in Arizona

      Norton, E. J.; Silvertooh, J. C.; Silvertooth, Jeff (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 2000)
      A series of experiments have been conducted from 1988 to 1999 at various locations across the cotton producing regions of Arizona to evaluate mepiquat chloride (MC) applications in terms of plant growth and yield. These experiments were designed to evaluate MC under three application regimes. These regimes included low rate multiple applications, late season applications, and a feedback vs. scheduled management of MC and nitrogen (N) applications. The objective of this summary (including a total of 31 site-years) is to determine which of these three application regimes offer the greatest opportunity for a positive lint yield response to MC. Stability analysis was conducted by regressing the treatment mean lint yield against the environmental mean for each application regime. Results from the stability analyses revealed that the most viable method of application is a feedback approach for both MC and fertilizer N. The most reliable technique associated with plant assessment in a feedback approach was the height to node ratio (HNR) to indicate vegetative tendencies for determining the appropriate rate and timing of MC applications.
    • The 2000 Arizona Cotton Advisory Program

      Brown, P.; Russell, B.; Silvertooth, J.; Ellsworth, P.; Olsen, M.; Husman, S.; Clark, L.; Schneider, M.; Silvertooth, Jeff (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 2000)
      Arizona Cooperative Extension generates and distributes weather-based Planting Date and Cotton Development Advisories for 19 cotton production areas (Aguila, Buckeye, Cochise Co., Coolidge, Eloy, Greenlee Co., Harquahala, Laveen, Litchfield Pk., Marana, Maricopa, Mohave Valley, Paloma, Parker, Pinal Co., Queen Creek, Roll, Safford and Yuma Valley). Planting Date Advisories are distributed from legal first planting date until the end of April and provide updates on heat-unit-based planting windows, recent and forecasted weather conditions, heat unit accumulations, variety selection, soil temperatures, recommended plant population, and early insect management and control. Cotton Development Advisories are distributed from early May through early September and provide updates on crop development, insects, weather and agronomy. The Cotton Advisory Program will continue in 2000, and growers may obtain from the AZMET Internet Web Page (http://ag.arizona.edu/azmet) or by mail/fax from local extension offices.