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PublisherThe University of Arizona.
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AbstractWhen the Gila Pimas came into contact with Hispanic culture at the close of the 17th century, they had a relatively stable culture and economy. Subsistence was based on irrigation agriculture, supplemented by hunting and gathering. Except in basketry and weaving, their technology was simple. There were no full-time specialists The social organization was based on the patrilineal extended family, complicated by forms of relationships which cut across family and village lines. Leadership was just beginning to extend beyond the village The interests of the society were focused on curing, social relationships, and agriculture. Hospitality and peace were the two discernible values of the society. During the one hundred sixty years of Hispanic contact, the Gila Pimas were in an advantageous position in their relationships with the Whites. No immigrant establishment was ever located within their territory, and they were valued as one of the defenses of Sonora against encroachment from the north. Contacts between agents of the two cultures occurred intermittently and in an atmosphere of equality, rather than continuously and under conditions of domination. The Gila Pimas were thus never forced to live under two sets of values, and were able to choose what of Hispanic culture they wished to accept. They chose elements which they deemed desirable for their material benefit, rejecting others offered them. Consequently, Gila Pima culture was enriched by the Hispanic contacts, and readiness to adopt new cultural traits was stimulated. The continuity of the culture was uninterrupted, however, and no major reorientation took place, although the development of an orientation toward war was in process. Culture contact under those conditions has been defined as the situation of non-directed acculturation, The response of the Gila Pimas to that kind of acculturation situation was to develop a pattern of adjustment designated as selective acceptance with no major reorientation, and it is suggested that such a pattern of adjustment is only possible in a situation of non-directed acculturation.
Degree NamePh. D.