Committee ChairDutt, Gordon R.
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PublisherThe University of Arizona.
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AbstractField and greenhouse experiments to determine the response of grapes to saline irrigation water were conducted. The goal of this research were: (1) to study the effect of salinity on grape and wine quantity and quality and (2) to evaluate the degree of salt tolerance of some of the grape rootstocks. For the greenhouse study, seven grape rootstocks were grown in the soil columns irrigated with three levels of salinity, EC of 0.45, 2.5, and 5 mmhos/cm. The later two waters were prepared by adding MgSO₄ and CaC1₂ salts to tap water with EC of 0.45 mmhos/cm. Shoot growth, pruning weight, leaf area, and trunk diameter were significantly reduced by salinity. Reduction in shoot growth and pruning weight were more pronounced than leaf area and trunk diameter. Maximum ECₑ values (1007 reduction in growth) varied from 8.81 mmhos/cm for 41B rootstock to 16.43 mmhos/cm for Ramsey rootstock. Maximum ECₑ for Barbera (Vitis vinifera) was 11.04 mmhos/cm. Based on percent reduction in growth, the relative tolerance of grapes could be arranged as follows: Ramsey > 5BB > SO4 > 1613 > Barbera > 99R > 41B. The field study included two sources of water and six grape rootstocks which were grafted to Barbera. Two sources of irrigation water were city and well water with EC of 0.42 and 2.6 mmhos/cm, respectively. The response of grapes to salinity was evaluated by fruit yield and pruning weight. Well water application significantly reduced fruit yield and pruning weight. The average fruit yield and pruning weight of Barbera grapes with all the rootstocks decreased by 49.5 7e and 26.7 7e with the well water compared to the city water, respectively. Must and wine analysis indicated that salt treated grape had higher total acidity and lower pH. Alcohol of the wines was not affected uniformly by treatment. Except for 99R rootstocks, the color of the wines were darker in city water than well water. Quality of wine from 3309 rootstock was lowered considerably by well water. With well water, only Barbera wine from 5BB rootstock appeared to be commercially acceptable. The six rootstocks differed from each other in their ability to growth in saline condition. Barbera grape grafted on 5BB and Ramsey rootstocks showed higher tolerance to salinity than Barbera on 99R, 3309, Harmony, and 41B rootstocks.
Degree NamePh. D.
Degree ProgramSoils, Water and Engineering