AuthorRose, Joan Bray.
Water -- Purification -- Virus removal.
Water -- Microbiology.
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PublisherThe University of Arizona.
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AbstractThe isolation of viruses from treated drinking water has raised concerns that water treatment methods may not always adequately insure the removal of viruses from water designated for human consumption. The isolation of enteroviruses and rotavIruses from treated drinking water in a distribution system and at a water treatment plant has been previously reported. Isolation of viruses from drinking water that met recommended levels of coliform bacteria, chlorine and turbidity. The question is raised as to whether or not current drinking water standards ensure safe drinking water. The isolation of enteroviruses and rotaviruses from treated drinking water In a distribution system and at a water treatment plant. This study reports the results of a more extensive investigation on the removal of naturally occurring viruses by water treatment processes including prechlorination/clarification, filtration, and chlorination at a fullscale water treatment plant. The removal of enteroviruses and rotaviruses was studied at a full scale 205 mgd water treatment plant involving chemical clarification, sand filtration and chlorination. Enteric viruses, as well as coliphages, indicator bacteria, physical and chemical variables were measured in water samples taken at each stage of the drinking water treatment facility. Linear intercorrel ations were analyzed for all the variables. The numbers of standard plate count bacteria and coliphage were positively correlated to the presence of enteroviruses in the raw water while coliphage counts were positively correlated to the presence of rotaviruses in the finished water. Samples were taken during the dry and rainy seasons. During the dry season, it was found that reduction of enteroviruses and rotaviruses averaged 81% and 93%, respectively, for the complete treatment process and were the least efficiently removed as compared to the other microorganisms. The greatest reduction of enterovIruses occurred during pre-chlorination/flocculation and filtration, while a significant reduction of rotav I ru ses occurred during prechlorination/ flocculation and final chlorination. Enteroviruses or rotaviruses occurred in 24% of the finished water samples containing chlorine levels of >0.2 mg/L, and meeting coliform bacteria (1/100 ml) and turbidity (1 NTU) standards. During the rainy season removals were found to be far less efficient for all the variables and rotaviruses were isolated from all finished water samples. The results of this study indicate that finished water having measurable levels of free residual chlorine and meeting standards for col iform bacteria, and turbidity cannot be assumed to be virus free.
Degree NamePh. D.
Degree ProgramMicrobiology and Immunology