Improved Types of Sheep for The Southwest; With a Chapter on the Sheep and Tunis and Algeria
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Other TitlesThe Sheep and Tunis and Algeria
Series/Report no.Bulletin (University of Arizona, Agricultural Experiment Station) No. 69
DescriptionThis item was digitized as part of the Million Books Project led by Carnegie Mellon University and supported by grants from the National Science Foundation (NSF). Cornell University coordinated the participation of land-grant and agricultural libraries in providing historical agricultural information for the digitization project; the University of Arizona Libraries, the College of Agriculture and Life Sciences, and the Office of Arid Lands Studies collaborated in the selection and provision of material for the digitization project.
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Chronic Norepinephrine Suppression Induces a Compensatory B-Cell Adaptation that Enhances Insulin Secretion after Alleviation of the Catecholamine Inhibition in Fetal SheepChen, Xiaochuan (The University of Arizona., 2012)Placental insufficiency-induced intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) increases risk of mortality and morbidity in newborn infants and domestic animals. IUGR fetuses are typically exposed to prolonged hypoxemia, hypoglycemia, and hypercatecholaminemia, which results in perinatal pancreatic β-cell dysfunction. Recent evidence indicates that chronic exposure to norepinephrine in utero suppresses insulin secretion through α2-adrenergic receptors (ARs), but if the adrenergic actions are blocked compensatory hyper insulin secretion response is observed in the IUGR sheep fetus. In the current studies, we demonstrate that chronic NE exposure alone can produce the compensatory enhancement of β-cell responsiveness following termination of a chronic NE infusion. In the fetus NE was continuously infused at 1-4 μg/min for seven days starting at 131 days of gestational age (term = 145 days). During treatment, NE infused fetuses had higher (P < 0.05) plasma NE concentrations and lower (P < 0.01) insulin concentrations than vehicle infused control fetuses. Glucose stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS), which measures β-cell function, prior to NE treatment was not different between treatments. However, insulin concentrations during hyperglycemic steady state period of GSIS studies and area under the curve of glucose-potentiated arginine-induced insulin secretion were higher (P < 0.01) than control values and this augmentation was confirmed at 3 hours, 24 hours, and five days in NE-infused fetuses after discontinuing the infusion. Pancreatic islets isolated within 10 hours post NE infusion had lower (P < 0.05) mRNA expression of α1D (58%), α2A (43%), α2C (42%), α1 (67%) adrenergic receptors (ARs), and uncoupling protein 2 (40%) compared to islets from controls. Isolated islets from NE-infused fetuses 5 days after NE treatment had lower (P < 0.05) inhibitory responsiveness from NE and a greater (P < 0.05) maximal insulin release with glucose simulation in static incubations compared to controls. These findings show that following chronic NE exposure insulin secretion responsiveness was augmented and was coupled with desensitized adrenergic signaling. Moreover, this compensatory β-cell enhancement persists for days indicating chronic NE exposure permanently alters β-cell responsiveness.
Human disturbance in bighorn sheep habitat, Pusch Ridge Wilderness, ArizonaSchoenecker, Kathryn Alyce, 1964- (The University of Arizona., 1997)I monitored and recorded human activities in bighorn sheep habitat to determine the role of human activity in the decline of an indigenous population of bighorn sheep in the Pusch Ridge Wilderness, Santa Catalina Mountains, Arizona. I recorded hiker activity, sound levels, presence of dogs, and hunting activity in off-trail areas of bighorn sheep habitat from June 1995 to June 1996. Eighteen percent of hiker-groups entering the study area hiked off-trails in bighorn sheep habitat, and 8% were accompanied by dogs. Although I observed very little hunting activity in the area, noise disturbance may be a factor in the decline of the population. The cumulative affect of these and other activities probably contributed to the decline of the herd.