Development of approaches for immunotherapy by chimeric antigen receptor modified hematopoietic stem cell transfer
AuthorBadowski, Michael Steven
AdvisorHarris, David T
Committee ChairHarris, David T
MetadataShow full item record
PublisherThe University of Arizona.
RightsCopyright © is held by the author. Digital access to this material is made possible by the University Libraries, University of Arizona. Further transmission, reproduction or presentation (such as public display or performance) of protected items is prohibited except with permission of the author.
AbstractCancer is an uncontrolled growth of the body's own cells. While cancer rates increase with age, this disease afflicts both young and old. Traditional cancer therapy has had three major facets: 1) chemotherapy, which can non-specifically damage healthy tissue, 2) radiation, which can make some types of cancer more likely in the future, and 3) surgery, which can be physically traumatic and is not effective in removing unseen microtumors or circulating metastases. Immunotherapy, by its very nature, is drastically different. Immunotherapy seeks to employ cells or molecules from the immune system, in their original or a modified form, to augment, assist or replace missing elements of the native functioning immune system. Our immunotherapeutic approach has been to develop novel chimeric antigen receptors (CAR) and deliver the engineered transgene into hematopoietic stem cells (HSC). We have developed a novel single chain TCR (scTCR) in which the TCR V-alpha and V-beta segments are joined by a flexible linker. In addition to our scTCR we developed a single chain antibody molecule (scFv) to increase avidity to the tumor antigen and avoid the potential limitation of MHC restriction. Our lab has previously developed a signaling cassette based on the CD3 zeta chain, CD28 and p56Lck proteins which are prominent in the T-cell signaling pathway. The single chain specificities are linked to the signaling cassette that we have shown to function in T-cells. With specificity and signaling coupled, the chimeric antigen receptor can be transduced into hematopoietic stem cells (HSC) via a lentivirus vector. This adoptive immunotherapy can potentially eliminate malignant cells or supplement traditional therapies by providing engineered specificity and a useful method to transfer and expand tumor specific T-cells. We show in this study that the CAR can be delivered effectively to HSC and that the introduced transgene is expressed in multiple cell lineages. We also have developed a novel method of increasing lentiviral transduction efficiency. Both transduced fraction of cells and overall expression can be increased by proper timing and coordination of cell growth, cell cycle phase, vector addition and treatment with heat shock.
Degree ProgramMicrobiology & Immunology