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dc.contributor.advisorGerba, Charles Pen_US
dc.contributor.authorJones, Ellen L.en_US
dc.creatorJones, Ellen L.en_US
dc.date.accessioned2011-12-05T21:53:45Z
dc.date.available2011-12-05T21:53:45Z
dc.date.issued2006en_US
dc.identifier.urihttp://hdl.handle.net/10150/193582
dc.description.abstractNoroviruses are the leading cause of gastroenteritis in the United States, causing an estimated 23 million illnesses, 50,000 hospitalizations and 300 deaths per year. This virus is transmitted via the fecal-oral route and infections can occur from drinking contaminated water or eating contaminated food, contact with contaminated fomites, inhalation of aerosolized vomitus, or person to person spread. Outbreaks of norovirus following exposure to contaminated recreational water have been documented, as swimmers and others engaged in water recreation often consume recreational water, either purposefully or accidentally, during their activities. In Arizona there have been several outbreaks of norovirus gastroenteritis among people using the recreational waters. In the past four years there have been four consecutive outbreaks of norovirus among rafters on the Colorado River, and in 2003 there was an outbreak of norovirus among a large group of houseboaters on Lake Powell.Norovirus is an emerging pathogen in the state of Arizona. In an effort to better understand its epidemiology, and with the aim of providing recommendations for prevention or minimization of future outbreaks, two investigations were undertaken: an investigation of the outbreak of norovirus among houseboaters on Lake Powell, and a survey of water quality and possible sources of norovirus in the Colorado River. Additionally, historical Colorado River water quality data was reviewed and outbreak epidemiology assessed. To better understand the role of viruses in waterborne recreational disease outbreaks, a review of the literature was conducted and an analysis of 48 recreational waterborne disease outbreaks was done.
dc.language.isoENen_US
dc.publisherThe University of Arizona.en_US
dc.rightsCopyright © is held by the author. Digital access to this material is made possible by the University Libraries, University of Arizona. Further transmission, reproduction or presentation (such as public display or performance) of protected items is prohibited except with permission of the author.en_US
dc.subjectnorovirusen_US
dc.subjectrecreational wateren_US
dc.subjectoutbreaken_US
dc.subjectfomitesen_US
dc.subjectswimmingen_US
dc.titleNorovirus in Recreational Waters in Arizonaen_US
dc.typetexten_US
dc.typeElectronic Dissertationen_US
dc.contributor.chairGerba, Charles Pen_US
dc.identifier.oclc137356935en_US
thesis.degree.grantorUniversity of Arizonaen_US
thesis.degree.leveldoctoralen_US
dc.contributor.committeememberPepper, Ianen_US
dc.contributor.committeememberMaier, Raina M.en_US
dc.contributor.committeememberReynolds, Kelly A.en_US
dc.identifier.proquest1475en_US
thesis.degree.disciplineSoil, Water & Environmental Scienceen_US
thesis.degree.disciplineGraduate Collegeen_US
thesis.degree.namePhDen_US
refterms.dateFOA2018-07-06T02:26:21Z
html.description.abstractNoroviruses are the leading cause of gastroenteritis in the United States, causing an estimated 23 million illnesses, 50,000 hospitalizations and 300 deaths per year. This virus is transmitted via the fecal-oral route and infections can occur from drinking contaminated water or eating contaminated food, contact with contaminated fomites, inhalation of aerosolized vomitus, or person to person spread. Outbreaks of norovirus following exposure to contaminated recreational water have been documented, as swimmers and others engaged in water recreation often consume recreational water, either purposefully or accidentally, during their activities. In Arizona there have been several outbreaks of norovirus gastroenteritis among people using the recreational waters. In the past four years there have been four consecutive outbreaks of norovirus among rafters on the Colorado River, and in 2003 there was an outbreak of norovirus among a large group of houseboaters on Lake Powell.Norovirus is an emerging pathogen in the state of Arizona. In an effort to better understand its epidemiology, and with the aim of providing recommendations for prevention or minimization of future outbreaks, two investigations were undertaken: an investigation of the outbreak of norovirus among houseboaters on Lake Powell, and a survey of water quality and possible sources of norovirus in the Colorado River. Additionally, historical Colorado River water quality data was reviewed and outbreak epidemiology assessed. To better understand the role of viruses in waterborne recreational disease outbreaks, a review of the literature was conducted and an analysis of 48 recreational waterborne disease outbreaks was done.


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