OPTICAL IMAGING MODALITIES: FROM DESIGN TO DIAGNOSIS OF SKIN CANCER
AuthorKorde, Vrushali Raj
AdvisorBarton, Jennifer K.
Committee ChairBarton, Jennifer K.
MetadataShow full item record
PublisherThe University of Arizona.
RightsCopyright © is held by the author. Digital access to this material is made possible by the University Libraries, University of Arizona. Further transmission, reproduction or presentation (such as public display or performance) of protected items is prohibited except with permission of the author.
AbstractThis study investigates three high resolution optical imaging modalities to better detect and diagnose skin cancer. The ideal high resolution optical imaging system can visualize pre-malignant tissue growth non-invasively with resolution comparable to histology. I examined 3 modalities which approached this goal. The first method examined was high magnification microscopy of thin stained tissue sections, together with a statistical analysis of nuclear chromatin patterns termed Karyometry. This method has subcellular resolution, but it necessitates taking a biopsy at the desired tissue site and imaging the tissue ex-vivo. My part of this study was to develop an automated nuclear segmentation algorithm to segment cell nuclei in skin histology images for karyometric analysis. The results of this algorithm were compared to hand segmented cell nuclei in the same images, and it was concluded that the automated segmentations can be used for karyometric analysis.The second optical imaging modality I investigated was Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT). OCT is analogous to ultrasound, in which sound waves are delivered into the body and the echo time and reflected signal magnitude are measured. Due to the fast speed of light and detector temporal integration times, low coherence interferometry is needed to gate the backscattered light. OCT acquires cross sectional images, and has an axial resolution of 1-15 Âµm (depending on the source bandwidth) and a lateral resolution of 10-20 Âµm (depending on the sample arm optics). While it is not capable of achieving subcellular resolution, it is a non-invasive imaging modality. OCT was used in this study to evaluate skin along a continuum from normal to sun damaged to precancer. I developed algorithms to detect statistically significant differences between images of sun protected and sun damaged skin, as well as between undiseased and precancerous skin.An Optical Coherence Microscopy (OCM) endoscope was developed in the third portion of this study. OCM is a high resolution en-face imaging modality. It is a hybrid system that combines the principles of confocal microscopy with coherence gating to provide an increased imaging depth. It can also be described as an OCT system with a high NA objective. Similar to OCT, the axial resolution is determined by the source center wavelength and bandwidth. The NA of the sample arm optics determines the lateral resolution, usually on the order of 1-5 Âµm. My effort on this system was to develop a handheld endoscope. To my knowledge, an OCM endoscope has not been developed prior to this work. An image of skin was taken as a proof of concept. This rigid handheld OCM endoscope will be useful for applications ranging from minimally invasive surgical imaging to non-invasively assessing dysplasia and sun damage in skin.
Degree ProgramOptical Sciences